1. Minnesota


  1. Anesthesiology


  1. Resident - Anesthesiology Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
  2. Internship - Internal Medicine Mayo Clinic in Rochester
  3. MD University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
  4. Post Doctoral Fellowship Mayo Clinic in Rochester
  5. PhD Physiology, Biomedical Engineering Track, Programs, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
  6. Predoctoral Fellowship Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
  7. MS - Biomedical Engineering University of Southern California
  8. B.Tech - Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology


  1. American Board of Anesthesiology

Primary Appointment

  1. Anesthesiology

Academic rank

  1. Professor of Physiology
  2. Professor of Anesthesiology


  • Mechanisms of anesthetic action
  • Signal transduction in smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle in development, health and disease
  • Mechanisms of airway inflammation
  • Mechanisms of hypothermia and rewarming in cardiac muscle


See my publications


See a description of research activities.