1. BA - Biology University of California, San Diego
  2. MD School of Medicine, University of Texas, San Antonio
  3. Internship - Internal Medicine Methodist Hospital
  4. Resident - Ophthalmology Kresge Eye Institute, Wayne State University
  5. Fellow - Neuro Ophthalmology, Sponsor: William F. Hoyt, M.D. University of California, San Francisco
  6. Fellow - Pediatric Ophthalmology, Position: Associate in Ophthalmology, Sponsor: Edward G. Buckley, M.D. Duke University

Academic rank

  1. Professor of Neurology
  2. Professor of Ophthalmology


  • Evolutionary mechanisms of infantile strabismus
  • Congenital optic disc anomalies
  • Ocular motor physiology
  • Nystagmus and other ocular motility disturbances
  • Eye movement recording
  • Pediatric neuro-ophthalmology


See a listing of publications on PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine.


See a description of research activities.