Women's health: Prevent the top threats
The biggest threats to women's health are often preventable. Here's what you need to know to live a longer, healthier life.By Mayo Clinic Staff
Many of the leading threats to women's health can be prevented — if you know how. The top causes of death among adult women in the U.S. include heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, Alzheimer's disease, and unintentional injuries, according to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Take control by talking with your doctor about your risk factors for these conditions. Then get serious about reducing your risk.
Manage chronic conditions and get recommended screenings
If you have health problems — such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure or diabetes — that increase your risk of heart disease and stroke, follow your doctor's treatment recommendations. Also, consult your doctor about when you should have mammograms and other cancer screenings.
Adopt a healthier lifestyle
While you can't eliminate risk factors such as family history, you can control other risk factors for heart disease, stroke and cancer. For example:
- Don't smoke. If you smoke or use other tobacco products, ask your doctor to help you quit. Avoid exposure to secondhand smoke.
- Eat a healthy diet. Choose vegetables, fruits, whole grains, high-fiber foods and lean sources of protein, such as fish. Limit foods high in saturated fat, added sugar and sodium.
- Maintain a healthy weight. Losing excess pounds — and keeping them off — can lower your risk of heart disease as well as various types of cancer.
- Get moving. Exercise can help you control your weight and lower your risk of heart disease and stroke. It might also lower your risk of certain types of cancer. Choose activities you enjoy, from brisk walking to ballroom dancing.
- Limit alcohol. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so only in moderation. For women, that means no more than one drink a day. A drink is one and a half ounces of standard 80-proof liquor, 12 ounces of beer, or a five-ounce glass of wine. The risk of various types of cancer — including breast and liver — appears to increase with the amount of alcohol you drink and the length of time you've been drinking regularly.
- Manage stress. If you feel constantly on edge or under assault, your lifestyle habits might suffer — and so might your immune system. Take steps to reduce stress — or learn to deal with stress in healthy ways.
A healthy lifestyle also might play a role in preventing Alzheimer's disease.
Other preventive steps
Women are more vulnerable than men to lung damage from inhaled smoke and pollutants. This puts women at increased risk of illness and even death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease — which includes bronchitis and emphysema.
You can protect your respiratory health by not smoking and avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke. Try to minimize your exposure to chemicals and outdoor air pollution. Also, prevent respiratory infections by washing your hands often and getting a yearly flu vaccine. Ask your doctor whether you need a pneumonia vaccine as well.
Another common cause of death among women is motor vehicle accidents. To stay safe on the road, wear your seat belt. Follow the speed limit. Don't drive under the influence of alcohol or any other substances, and don't drive while sleepy.
Don't feel overwhelmed by women's health risks. Instead, do whatever you can to lead a healthy lifestyle. Simple preventive measures can go a long way toward reducing your risks.
July 28, 2016
See more In-depth
- Deaths: Leading causes for 2013. National Vital Statistics Reports. 2016;65:1.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/copd/index.html. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- Hennekens CH. Overview of primary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. http://www.uptodate http://www.cdc.gov/copd.com/home. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- Goldman L, et al., eds. Psychiatric disorders in medical practice. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- Diet and physical activity: What's the cancer connection? American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/dietandphysicalactivity/diet-and-physical-activity. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- Tips to keep your lungs healthy. American Lung Association. http://www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/protecting-your-lungs/?referrer=https://www.google.com/. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- Powell ND, et al. Psychosocial stress and inflammation in cancer. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2012;30:S41.
- Park L. Preventive care in adults: Recommendations. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- Alcohol: A women's health issue. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/brochurewomen/women.htm. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- Taking her breath away: The rise of COPD in women. American Lung Association. http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/research/rise-of-copd-in-women-summary.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- Prevention Alzheimer's disease. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/preventing-alzheimers-disease/so-what-can-you-do. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- Seatbelts: Get the facts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/seatbelts/facts.html. Accessed July 1, 2016.
- Alcohol and public health: Frequently asked questions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm. Accessed July 25, 2016.
- Tobah YT (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 8, 2016.