Infant choking: How to keep your baby safe
Infant choking is scary, but it's largely preventable. Understand why babies are so vulnerable to choking — and what you can do to prevent infant choking.By Mayo Clinic Staff
Worried about infant choking? Find out the common causes of infant choking and what you can do to help protect your baby from choking hazards.
Why are babies vulnerable to choking?
Choking is a common cause of injury and death in young children, primarily because their small airways are easily obstructed. It takes time for babies to master the ability to chew and swallow food, and babies might not be able to cough forcefully enough to dislodge an airway obstruction. As babies explore their environments, they also commonly put objects into their mouths — which can lead to infant choking.
Sometimes health conditions increase the risk of choking as well. Children who have swallowing disorders, neuromuscular disorders, developmental delays and traumatic brain injury, for example, have a higher risk of choking than do other children.
What are the most common causes of infant choking?
Food is the most common cause of infant choking. However, small objects, parts from toys and certain types of behavior during eating — such as eating while distracted — also can cause infant choking.
What can I do to prevent infant choking?
To prevent infant choking:
- Properly time the introduction of solid foods. Introducing your baby to solid foods before he or she has the motor skills to swallow them can lead to infant choking. Wait until your baby is at least 4 months old to introduce pureed solid foods.
- Don't offer high-risk foods. Don't give babies or young children hot dogs, chunks of meat or cheese, grapes, raw vegetables, or fruit chunks, unless they're cut up into small pieces. Don't give babies or young children hard foods, such as seeds, nuts, popcorn and hard candy that can't be changed to make them safe options. Other high-risk foods include peanut butter, marshmallows and chewing gum.
- Supervise mealtime. As your child gets older, don't allow him or her to play, walk or run while eating. Remind your child to chew and swallow his or her food before talking. Don't allow your child to throw food in the air and catch it in his or her mouth or stuff large amounts of food in his or her mouth.
- Carefully evaluate your child's toys. Don't allow your baby or toddler to play with latex balloons — which pose a hazard when uninflated and broken — small balls, marbles, toys that contain small parts or toys meant for older children. Look for age guidelines when buying toys and regularly examine toys to make sure they're in good condition.
- Keep hazardous objects out of reach. Common household items that might pose a choking hazard include coins, button batteries, dice and pen caps.
What should I do if my baby chokes?
If your baby is choking and can't breathe:
- Assume a seated position. Hold the infant facedown on your forearm, which is resting on your thigh.
- Thump the infant gently but firmly five times on the middle of the back using the heel of your hand. The combination of gravity and the back blows should release the blocking object.
- Hold the infant faceup on your forearm with the head lower than the trunk if the above doesn't work. Using two fingers placed at the center of the infant's breastbone, give five quick chest compressions.
- Repeat the back blows and chest thrusts if breathing doesn't resume. Call for emergency medical help.
- Begin infant CPR if one of these techniques opens the airway but the infant doesn't resume breathing.
To be prepared in case of an emergency take a class on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and choking first aid for children. Encourage everyone who cares for your child to do the same.
June 04, 2016
See more In-depth
- American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Injury, Violence and Poison Prevention. Policy statement — Prevention of choking among children. Pediatrics. 2010;125:601.
- Nonfatal choking on food among children 14 years or younger in the United States, 2001-2009. Pediatrics. 2013;132:275.
- Duryea TK. Introducing solid foods and vitamin and mineral supplementation during infancy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 26, 2016.
- Choking: What to do for an infant. American Academy of Emergency Physicians. http://www.emergencycareforyou.org/Content.aspx?id=26146. Accessed April 26, 2016.
- Sharpe SJ, et al. Pediatric battery-related emergency department visits in the United States, 1990-2009. Pediatrics. 2012;129:1111.
- Nichols BG, et al. Pediatric exposure to choking hazards is associated with parental knowledge of choking hazards. International Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. 2012:76;169.