What causes a low milk supply during breast-feeding?
Answer From Elizabeth LaFleur, R.N.
Various factors can cause a low milk supply during breast-feeding, such as waiting too long to start breast-feeding, not breast-feeding often enough, supplementing breastfeeding, an ineffective latch and use of certain medications. Sometimes previous breast surgery affects milk production.
Other factors that can affect milk production include:
- Premature birth
- Maternal obesity
- Pregnancy-induced high blood pressure
- Poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes
Although many women worry about low milk supply, insufficient breast milk production is rare. In fact, most women make one-third more breast milk than their babies typically drink.
To boost milk production:
- Breast-feed as soon as possible. Waiting too long to start breast-feeding can contribute to a low milk supply. Hold your baby skin to skin right after birth and your baby will likely breast-feed within the first hour after delivery.
- Breast-feed often. For the first few weeks, breast-feed eight to 12 times a day — about every two to three hours.
- Check your latch. Make sure your baby is latched on and positioned well. Look for signs that your baby is swallowing.
- Be alert to feeding problems. Offer both breasts at each feeding. It's OK for your baby to nurse on only one breast at a feeding occasionally — but if this happens regularly, your milk supply will decrease. You might pump the other breast to relieve pressure and protect your milk supply until your baby begins taking more at each feeding.
- Don't skip breast-feeding sessions. Pump your breasts each time you miss a breast-feeding session to help protect your milk supply.
- Hold off on the pacifier. If you choose to give your baby a pacifier, consider waiting until three or four weeks after birth. This will give you time to establish your milk supply.
- Use medications with caution. Certain medications decrease milk supply, including medications containing pseudoephedrine (Sudafed, Zyrtec D, others). Your health care provider might also caution against certain types of hormonal contraception, at least until breast-feeding is firmly established.
- Avoid alcohol and nicotine. Drinking moderate to heavy amounts of alcohol can decrease milk production. Smoking can have the same effect.
Maintaining your milk supply during breast-feeding is important for your baby's health and growth. If you're concerned about your milk supply or your baby's feedings, talk to your doctor, your baby's doctor or a lactation consultant.
Nov. 24, 2020
Elizabeth LaFleur, R.N.
See more Expert Answers
- Spencer J. Common problems of breastfeeding and weaning. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Nov. 2, 2018.
- Hay WW, et al., eds. The newborn infant. In: Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics. 23rd ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2016. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed Nov. 5, 2018.
- Wambach K, et al. Drug therapy and breastfeeding. In: Breastfeeding and Human Lactation. 5th ed. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones & Bartlett Publishers; 2010.
- Breastfeeding and medication. American Academy of Pediatrics. https://www.aap.org/en-us/Pages/Breastfeeding-and-Medication.aspx. Accessed Nov. 2, 2018.
- Sridhar A, et al. Optimizing maternal and neonatal outcomes with postpartum contraception: Impact on breastfeeding and birth spacing. Maternal Health, Neonatology, and Perinatology. 2017;3:1.
- Kliegman RM, et al. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 2, 2018.
- Your guide to breastfeeding. Office on Women's Health. https://www.womenshealth.gov/patient-materials/resource/guides?from=breastfeeding. Accessed Oct. 31, 2018.
- Breastfeeding. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/breastfeeding-special-circumstances/vaccinations-medications-drugs/alcohol.html. Accessed Nov. 2, 2018.