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Thiamine (also spelled "thiamin") is a vitamin, formerly known as vitamin B1. Thiamine was one of the first compounds recognized as a vitamin.
Thiamine is involved in many body functions, including nervous system and muscle function, the flow of electrolytes in and out of nerve and muscle cells, digestion, and carbohydrate metabolism. Very little thiamine is stored in the body and depletion can occur within 14 days. Severe thiamine deficiency may lead to serious complications involving the nervous system, brain, muscles, heart, and stomach and intestines.
Dietary sources of thiamine include beef, brewer's yeast, legumes (beans, lentils), milk, nuts, oats, oranges, pork, rice, seeds, wheat, whole-grain cereals, and yeast. In industrialized countries, food made with white rice or white flour is often enriched with thiamine.
Thiamine is used as part of a treatment for metabolic disorders and thiamine deficiency symptoms, as well as in alcoholics. It has been studied for other uses, but conclusions are lacking at this time.