Overview

La enfermedad de Osgood-Schlatter puede causar una protuberancia ósea dolorosa en la tibia, justo debajo de la rodilla. Suele afectar a niños y adolescentes que atraviesan períodos de crecimiento durante la pubertad.

La enfermedad de Osgood-Schlatter ocurre, con más frecuencia, en niños que practican deportes que involucran correr, saltar y realizar cambios rápidos de dirección, como fútbol, básquetbol, patinaje artístico y ballet.

Si bien la enfermedad de Osgood-Schlatter solía ser más frecuente en los niños, la brecha de sexo se está achicando dado que cada vez más niñas practican estos deportes.

La enfermedad de Osgood-Schlatter, generalmente, ocurre en niños de 12 a 14 años y en niñas de 10 a 13 años. La diferencia en el rango de edad se debe a que las niñas entran en la pubertad antes que los niños. La enfermedad, generalmente, desaparece sola, una vez que los huesos del niño dejan de crecer.

Síntomas

Knee pain and swelling just below the kneecap are the main indicators of Osgood-Schlatter disease. Pain usually worsens during certain activities, such as running, kneeling and jumping, and eases with rest.

The condition usually occurs in just one knee, but it can affect both knees. The discomfort can last from weeks to months and can recur until your child stops growing.

Causas

During activities that involve running, jumping and bending — such as soccer, basketball, volleyball and ballet — your child's thigh muscles (quadriceps) pull on the tendon that connects the kneecap to the growth plate at the top part of the shinbone.

This repeated stress can cause the tendon to pull on the growth plate where the tendon inserts into the shinbone, resulting in the pain and swelling associated with Osgood-Schlatter disease. Some children's bodies try to close that gap with new bone growth, which can result in a bony lump at that spot.

Factores de riesgo

The main risk factors for Osgood-Schlatter disease are:

  • Age. Osgood-Schlatter disease occurs during puberty's growth spurts. Age ranges differ by sex because girls enter puberty earlier than do boys. Osgood-Schlatter disease typically occurs in boys ages 12 to 14 and girls ages 10 to 13.
  • Sex. Osgood-Schlatter disease is more common in boys, but the gender gap is narrowing as more girls become involved with sports.
  • Sports. The condition happens most often with sports that involve running, jumping and swift changes in direction.
  • Flexibility. Tightness in the quadriceps muscles can increase the pull of the kneecap's tendon on the growth plate at the top of the shinbone.

Complicaciones

Complications of Osgood-Schlatter disease are uncommon. If they occur, they might include chronic pain or localized swelling.

Even after symptoms have resolved, a bony bump might remain on the shinbone just below the kneecap. This bump can persist to some degree throughout your child's life, but it doesn't usually interfere with knee function.

In rare cases, Osgood-Shlattter disease can cause the growth plate to be pulled away from the shinbone.