In-depth

Prevention

Pregnancy and diabetes: Why lifestyle counts

Prenatal vitamins and pregnancy

Symptoms

Fatigue

Fatigue can signal many things. Here are some tips to help you decipher why you're wiped out and to regain your energy.

Shortness of breath

Tests and diagnosis

Cardiac catheterization

Echocardiogram

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

X-ray

Treatments and drugs

Cardiac ablation

Coronary angioplasty and stents

Dec. 29, 2017
References
  1. Facts about pulmonary atresia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/heartdefects/pulmonaryatresia.html. Accessed Oct. 28, 2015.
  2. Single ventricle defects. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/AboutCongenitalHeartDefects/Single-Ventricle-Defects_UCM_307037_Article.jsp#.VjE3ztiFOic. Accessed Oct. 28, 2015.
  3. Axelrod DM, et al. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA/IVS). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 28, 2015.
  4. Congenital heart defects. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/chd#. Accessed Oct. 29, 2015.
  5. Congenital heart defects: Tracking and research. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/heartdefects/research.html. Accessed Nov. 20, 2015.
  6. Congenital heart defects and CCHD. March of Dimes. http://www.marchofdimes.org/baby/congenital-heart-defects.aspx. Accessed Nov. 20, 2015.
  7. Isotretinoin and other retinoids during pregnancy. March of Dimes. http://www.marchofdimes.org/pregnancy/isotretinoin-and-other-retinoids-during-pregnancy.aspx. Accessed Nov. 20, 2015.
  8. Perloff JK, et al. Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. In: Perloff's Clinical Recognition of Congenital Heart Disease. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 23, 2015.
  9. Kouchoukos NT, et al. Pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum. In: Kirklin/Barratt-Boyles Cardiac Surgery. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 23, 2015.
  10. Geggel RL. Diagnosis and initial management of cyanotic heart disease in the newborn. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 23, 2015.
  11. Park MK. Cyanotic congenital heart defects. In: Pediatric Cardiology for Practitioners. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 23, 2015.
  12. Hay WW, et al. Cardiovascular diseases. In: Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics. 22nd ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2014. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Nov. 25, 2015.
  13. Your child's special needs. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/CongenitalHeartDefectsToolsResources/Web-Booklet-If-Your-Child-Has-a-Congenital-Heart-Defect_UCM_316608_Article.jsp#.VlYG3diFOic. Accessed Nov. 25, 2015.
  14. Riggen EA. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 20, 2015.
  15. Taggart NW (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 6, 2016.