Diagnosis

If you have signs and symptoms of postpartum thyroiditis, your doctor will check to see how your thyroid is functioning. He or she will use blood tests that measure the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and the level of the thyroid hormone thyroxine. If you have risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis, your doctor will likely test the functioning of your thyroid three and six months after delivery.

If your thyroid test results are abnormal, your doctor will likely recommend further testing within one to two weeks.

In addition, if you develop postpartum thyroiditis, your doctor will likely check your thyroid annually afterward to see if you develop hypothyroidism.

Treatment

Most women who develop postpartum thyroiditis don't need treatment during the hyperthyroid or hypothyroid phases of their condition. However, your doctor will likely monitor how your thyroid is functioning through blood tests every four to eight weeks. This will help him or her track whether abnormalities resolve themselves or detect the development of hypothyroidism.

If you develop severe signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, your doctor will likely recommend treatment with a drug that blocks the effects of thyroid hormone on the body (beta blocker). Beta blockers typically aren't recommended for women who are breast-feeding. However, the drug propranolol might be recommended because in breast milk it's not as concentrated as other beta blockers.

If you develop severe signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism, you'll likely need thyroid hormone therapy for six to 12 months. This treatment involves daily use of the synthetic thyroid hormone levothyroxine (Levothroid, Synthroid, others). When you stop taking the medication your doctor will monitor you for the development of hypothyroidism. You might need blood tests after two months, three months, six months and then, if your test results remains normal, annually.

Coping and support

The postpartum period often brings physical discomfort as well as emotional ups and downs. If you're diagnosed with postpartum thyroiditis, work with your health care provider to determine how you can safely manage your condition and your role as the mother of a newborn.

Preparing for your appointment

You'll likely start by seeing your family doctor or a general practitioner. In some cases, you might be referred to a doctor who specializes in the body's hormone-secreting glands (endocrinologist).

Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment and know what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there's anything you need to do in advance.
  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that might seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements you're taking.
  • Take a family member or friend along, if possible. Someone who accompanies you might remember something that you missed or forgot.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Preparing a list of questions will help you make the most of your time with your doctor. For postpartum thyroiditis, some basic questions to ask include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms or condition?
  • Are there other possible causes for my symptoms or condition?
  • What tests do I need?
  • Is my condition likely temporary or chronic?
  • What is the best course of action?
  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach you're suggesting?
  • I have these other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?
  • Are there restrictions I need to follow?
  • Should I see a specialist?
  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing?
  • Are there brochures or other printed material I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask any other relevant questions you have.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

  • When did you begin experiencing symptoms?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?
  • Do you have a prior history or family history of thyroid disease?
Aug. 20, 2013
References
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  7. Hale TW. Medications and Mother's Milk 2012: A Manual of Lactational Pharmacology. 15th ed. Amarillo, Texas: Hale Publishing L.P.; 2012:673.
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  9. Postpartum thyroiditis. The American Thyroid Association. http://www.thyroid.org/postpartum-thyroiditis/. Accessed June 4, 2013.
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