Morning sickness is typically diagnosed based on your signs and symptoms. If your pregnancy care provider suspects hyperemesis gravidarum, you may need various urine and blood tests. Your pregnancy care provider may also do an ultrasound to confirm the number of fetuses and detect any underlying conditions that may be contributing to the nausea.
Sept. 18, 2014
- Smith JA, et al. Treatment and outcomes of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July. 10, 2014.
- American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) Committee on Practice Bulletins — Obstetrics. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 52. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2004;103:803.
- Frequently asked questions. Pregnancy FAQ126. Morning sickness. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq126.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20140710T1203324342. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- AskMayoExpert. What medications can be used if lifestyle modification is not effective for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2013.
- Creasy RK, et al. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- Goodwin TM. Hyperemesis gravidarum. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America. 2008;35:401.
- Ginger. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed July 17, 2014.
- Acupressure. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed July 17, 2014.
- Maltepe C, et al. The management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum — a 2013 update. Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology. 2013;20:e184.
- Slaughter SR, et al. FDA approval of doxylamine-pyridoxine therapy for use in pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014;370:1081.
- Czeizel AE, et al. The effect of periconceptional multivitamin-mineral supplementation on vertigo, nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 1992;251:181.
- Emelianova S, et al. Prevalence and severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and effect of vitamin supplementation. Clinical and Investigative Medicine. 1999;22:106.
- Gabbe SE, et al. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- Harms RW (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 10, 2014.
- Refruezo JS, et al. Clinical features and evaluation of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- Diclegis (prescribing information). Bryn Mawr, Penn.: Duchesnay Inc., 2013. http://www.diclegis.com/pdf/Diclegis_Full_Prescribing_Information.pdf. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- FDA approves Diclegis for pregnant women experiencing nausea and vomiting. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm347087.htm. Accessed July 10, 2014.
- Murry MM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 27, 2014.
- Parisa Y, et al. The effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2014;16:e14360.
- Pasha H, et al. Study of the effect of mint oil on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2012;14:727.