Preventing the spread of CRE and other antibiotic-resistant infections begins with practicing good hand-hygiene and using antibiotics only when necessary.
CRE, which stands for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, are strains of bacteria that are resistant to carbapenem, a class of antibiotic used to treat severe infections, as well as most other antibiotics commonly used today. In some cases, CRE are resistant to all available antibiotics.
Often called "superbugs," antibiotic-resistant bacteria can cause infections of the lungs (pneumonia), urinary tract and skin. CRE superbugs have the ability to spread and share their antibiotic-resistant qualities with healthy bacteria in your body. These germs have the potential to cause infections if they get into the bladder, blood or other areas where they don't belong. When an infection happens, it is difficult, if not impossible, to treat effectively.
CRE-related infections are associated with high mortality rates and are often responsible for outbreaks in health care settings. People whose care requires devices such as breathing machines (ventilators) or catheters and long courses of certain antibiotics are most at risk of CRE infections.
Preventing the spread of CRE and other antibiotic-resistant infections begins with practicing good hand-washing using soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Establishing healthy lifestyle habits such as eating a proper diet, getting enough exercise and maintaining good sleep patterns also can reduce the risk of illness.
It's also important to avoid overusing and misusing antibiotics, such as taking antibiotics when they're not the appropriate treatment. Antibiotics are designed to work against infections caused by bacteria, fungi and certain parasites — not infections caused by viruses. If you are prescribed an antibiotic, take the medicine only as directed and be sure to complete the full treatment course, even if you feel better after a couple of days.
Health care facilities also are encouraged to:
- Follow proper contact precautions when putting on and removing gowns and gloves
- Minimize the use of invasive devices such as urinary catheters
- Have in place appropriate infection control precautions when CRE are identified
- Use antibiotics appropriately
Jan. 25, 2019
- General information about CRE. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/cre/cre-patientgeneral.html. Accessed Dec. 15, 2015.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, et al. Notes from the field: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae producing OXA-48-like carbapenemases. MMWR. 2015;64:1315. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6447a3.htm?s_cid=mm6447a3_e. Accessed Dec. 15, 2015.
- Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in healthcare settings. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/organisms/cre/. Accessed Jan. 22, 2016.
- Healthcare-associated infections: Facility guidance for control of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/cre/cre-toolkit/index.html. Accessed Jan. 22, 2016.
- Antibiotics prescribing and use in doctors' offices: What you can do. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/about/can-do.html. Accessed Jan. 14, 2019.
- Guidelines for the prevention and control of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in health care facilities. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2017. https://www.who.int/infection-prevention/publications/guidelines-cre/en/. Accessed Dec. 7, 2018.