In-depth

Symptoms

Shortness of breath

Tests and diagnosis

Cardiac catheterization

Chest X-rays

CT scan

Echocardiogram

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

MRI

Stress test

Treatments and drugs

Coronary bypass surgery

Heart transplant

Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs)

Pacemaker

Ventricular assist device

Nov. 17, 2017
References
  1. Schoen FJ, et al. The heart. In: Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 3, 2016.
  2. What is heart failure? American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartFailure/AboutHeartFailure/What-is-Heart-Failure_UCM_002044_Article.jsp#.WCH1wFUrJ0w. Accessed Nov. 3, 2016.
  3. Cardiomyopathy. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/cm/#. Accessed Nov. 3, 2016.
  4. Colucci WS. Evaluation of the patient with suspected heart failure. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 3, 2016.
  5. Warning signs of a heart attack. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/WarningSignsofaHeartAttack/Warning-Signs-of-a-Heart-Attack_UCM_002039_Article.jsp#.WCChJVUrJ0w. Accessed Nov. 4, 2016.
  6. Cooper LT. Definition and classification of the cardiomyopathies. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Nov. 3, 2016.
  7. Bonow RO, et al., eds. The dilated, restrictive, and infiltrative cardiomyopathies. In: Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 5, 2016.
  8. Cardiac procedures and surgeries. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/PreventionTreatmentofHeartAttack/Cardiac-Procedures-and-Surgeries_UCM_303939_Article.jsp#.WCDYQlUrJ0w. Accessed Nov. 5, 2016.
  9. Lifestyle changes for heart failure. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartFailure/TreatmentOptionsForHeartFailure/Lifestyle-Changes-for-Heart Failure_UCM_306341_Article.jsp#.WCH7KVUrJ0x. Accessed Nov. 6, 2016.
  10. Mankad R (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Nov. 16, 2016.