High blood pressure is a risk factor for more than heart disease. Discover what complications high blood pressure can cause.
Coping and support
Tests and diagnosis
Treatments and drugs
Quitting smoking is hard. But the right medications can help you cope with cravings and withdrawal.
Aug. 11, 2017
- What is COPD? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/copd. Accessed Feb. 11, 2016.
- Ferri FF. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 11, 2016.
- Han MK, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Definition, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and staging. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 15, 2016.
- Balkissoon R, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A concise review. Medical Clinics of North America. 2011;95:1125.
- Foreman M, et al. Genes and COPD. Medical Clinics of North America. 2012;96:699.
- Longo DL, et al., eds. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Feb. 15, 2016.
- Pagon RA, et al., eds. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. In: GeneReviews. Seattle, Wash.: University of Seattle, Washington; 1993-2016. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1116. Accessed March 23, 2016.
- Hillas G, et al. Managing comorbidities in COPD. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2015;10:95.
- Standards for the diagnosis and management of patients with COPD. American Thoracic Society. http://www.thoracic.org/copd-guidelines/index.php. Accessed March 23, 2016.
- Ferguson GT, et al. Management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 15, 2016.
- Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2013.
- Riggin EA. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 22, 2016.
- Stoller JK. Management of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 23, 2016.
- Mallea JM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Fla. April 26, 2016.
- What are the benefits of quitting smoking? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/smo/benefits. Accessed April 27, 2016.
- Jha P, et al. 21st-century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2013;368:341.