Diabetes may increase your risk of Alzheimer's. Reduce this risk by controlling your blood sugar. Diet and exercise can help.By Mayo Clinic Staff
Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease are connected in ways that aren't yet fully understood. While not all research confirms the connection, many studies suggest people with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, are at higher risk of eventually developing Alzheimer's dementia or other dementias.
Taking steps to prevent or control diabetes may help reduce your risk of cognitive decline.
Diabetes can cause several complications, such as damage to your blood vessels. Diabetes is considered a risk factor for vascular dementia. This type of dementia occurs due to brain damage that is often caused by reduced or blocked blood flow to your brain.
Many people with diabetes have brain changes that are hallmarks of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Some researchers think that each condition fuels the damage caused by the other.
Ongoing research is looking at trying to better understand the link between Alzheimer's and diabetes. That link may occur as a result of the complex ways that type 2 diabetes affects the ability of the brain and other body tissues to use sugar (glucose) and respond to insulin.
Diabetes also may increase the risk of developing mild cognitive impairment, a condition in which people experience more thinking (cognitive) and memory problems than are usually present in normal aging. Mild cognitive impairment may precede or accompany Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia.
As researchers examine the connections between diabetes and Alzheimer's, they're also studying potential ways to prevent or treat both diseases.
Working with your health care team to prevent diabetes or manage your diabetes has been shown to be an effective strategy to avoid or reduce complications. Diabetes prevention or effective diabetes management also may help prevent Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.
Preventing diabetes or managing it successfully may help you avoid other complications, such as:
- Heart disease
- Eye damage
- Kidney disease
- Nerve damage, which may cause pain in your feet or hands (diabetic neuropathy)
- Digestive problems (gastroparesis)
Steps to prevent or manage diabetes and avoid potential complications include:
- Follow your health care team's recommendations about the most appropriate plan for monitoring your blood glucose, cholesterol level and blood pressure.
- Eat healthy foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, and low-fat milk and cheese.
- If you're overweight, eat a healthy diet and exercise to lose weight. Obesity can lead to diabetes and other health problems.
- Exercise at least 30 minutes most days of the week.
- Examine your feet daily for sores.
- Take any prescribed medications on schedule.
Evidence suggests diet and activity changes that lead to weight loss are especially effective in reducing diabetes risk.
Small steps can make a big difference. In a major clinical research study, participants with blood sugar levels slightly above normal (prediabetes) cut their risk of developing type 2 diabetes by more than 50 percent through exercise (30 minutes five days a week) and as little as a 5 to 7 percent loss in body weight. That weight loss translates to 10 to 14 pounds (4.5 to 6.4 kilograms) for a 200-pound (about 91-kilogram) person.
March 23, 2016
- Ojo O, et al. Evaluating the association between diabetes, cognitive decline and dementia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015;12:8281.
- Rosales-Corral S, et al. Diabetes and Alzheimer disease, two overlapping pathologies with the same background: Oxidative stress. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2015;2015:985845.
- Infante-Garcia C, et al. Long-term central pathology and cognitive impairment are exacerbated in a mixed model of Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;65:15.
- Larson EB, et al. Risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia. http://www.uptodate.com/home.Accessed Jan. 14, 2016.
- National diabetes statistics, 2014. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC). http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/index.aspx. Accessed Jan. 15, 2016.
- Diabetes prevention program (DPP). National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC). http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/preventionprogram. Accessed Jan. 18, 2016.
- 4 Steps to control your diabetes for life. National Diabetes Education Program. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Diabetes/4-steps-manage-diabetes/Pages/publicationdetail.aspx. Accessed Jan. 18, 2016.
- Dementia: Hope through research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dementias/detail_dementia.htm. Accessed Jan. 18, 2016.
- Østergaard SD, et al. Associations between potentially modifiable risk factors and Alzheimer disease: A Mendelian randomization study. PLOS Medicine. 2015;12:e1001841.
- Willette AA, et al. Association of insulin resistance with cerebral glucose uptake in late middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer disease. JAMA Neurology. 2015;72:1013.
- De Felice FG, et al. Inflammation, defective insulin signaling, and mitochondrial dysfunction as common molecular denominators connecting type 2 diabetes to Alzheimer disease. Diabetes. 2014;63:2262.
- De Felice FG, et al. Brain metabolic stress and neuroinflammation at the basis of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. May 19, 2015. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00094/full. Accessed Jan. 18, 2016.
- Keene CD, et al. Epidemiology, pathology, and pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 18, 2016.
- Wright, CB. Etiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of vascular dementia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 18, 2016.
- Sebastião I, et al. Insulin as a bridge between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer disease — How anti-diabetics could be a solution for dementia. Frontiers in Endocrinology. July 8, 2014. http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fendo.2014.00110/full. Accessed Jan. 18, 2016.
- McDade EM, et al. Mild cognitive impairment: Prognosis and treatment. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Feb. 2, 2016.
- McDade EM, et al. Mild cognitive impairment: Epidemiology, pathology, and clinical assessment. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed Feb. 2, 2016.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2016.. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 2, 2016.
- Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Diabetes mellitus & hypoglycemia. In: Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2016. 55th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2016. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed Jan. 18, 2016.
- McCulloch DK, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 3, 2016.