Mayo Clinic doctors diagnose vaginal cancer by careful examination of the vagina and cervix using a magnifying lens (colposcopy) and collection and examination of cells (biopsy) of tissue that may be cancerous. A doctor performs complete physical and pelvic exams to determine whether the cancer has spread to other parts of your body. The doctor may recommend other tests including:
Precancerous changes to your vagina and early vaginal cancer may have no symptoms, but your doctor can usually detect them through regular gynecologic exams and Pap smears. If you notice abnormal vaginal bleeding (especially after intercourse) or discharge, pain during intercourse or urination, constipation, pelvic discomfort or a mass, you should see a doctor. Noncancerous conditions may have similar symptoms.