Twisting the knee can cause a common knee injury known as a torn meniscus. Treatment sometimes includes surgery.
Acanthosis nigricans: Treating underlying disorders may improve skin condition
An active life that includes sports may also include the risk of a torn ACL. Reduce your risk, and know when to get treatment.
Acute coronary syndrome occurs when there isn't enough blood flowing through your heart. It can be felt as chest pain (angina) or a heart attack.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia is a type of leukemia that affects immature white blood cells. It's the most common cancer in children and adolescents.
Daily fevers, achy joints and an intermittent, salmon-pink rash may be an indication that you have a rare inflammatory disorder called adult Still's disease.
Ambiguous genitalia is a condition in which a newborn's external genitals don't appear clearly male or female.
Though anal cancer is rare, incidence of anal cancer is increasing. Find out the symptoms and causes of cancer of the anal canal.
Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory arthritis that affects your spine and nearby joints. Over time, your spine may become stiff and immovable.
Find out what's behind this life-threatening eating disorder and how to treat it.
Arthritis — Comprehensive overview covers arthritis symptoms, arthritis treatment and types of arthritis.
Ascariasis is a common type of roundworm infection found worldwide. It's spread by poor hygiene and improper sanitation. Infections are effectively treated with medication.
Aspergillosis is a group of illnesses caused by a common mold. It mainly affects people with a weakened immune system, another lung disease or asthma.
Asthma occurs when the main air passages of the lungs become inflamed, causing wheezing and difficulty breathing. Knowing warning signs can help you manage this chronic condition.
Atrial fibrillation is a common heart disorder. Find out more about this heart rhythm problem, including its symptoms, causes and treatments.
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormal opening between the heart's upper pumping chambers. It's common and readily treated.
Loss of blood flow to a bone leads to avascular necrosis — the death of bone tissue. This most commonly affects the thighbone, causing groin pain.
Back pain is a common reason for health care visits and missed work. Home treatment and proper body mechanics can help you feel better.
Bed-wetting happens — for more than one-third of preschoolers, almost every night. Be patient. Your child is likely to outgrow the problem.
Bell's palsy occurs when an impaired nerve results in facial weakness or paralysis. Most people experience a full recovery.
A type of influenza normally found in birds, bird flu first appeared in humans in 1997. Experts worry it could lead to a flu pandemic.
Bladder stones are small masses of minerals in your bladder — often forming as a result of an enlarged prostate, nerve damage or infection.
A microscopic parasite causes Blastocystis hominis infection. Experts disagree as to whether this infection causes diarrhea and other associated signs and symptoms.
Blind loop syndrome occurs when a portion of bowel is bypassed. The condition is most often a complication of abdominal surgery.
Bone cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that begins in a bone. It can affect both adults and children.
Bone metastasis occurs when cancer spreads to the bones.
Bone spurs can sometimes interfere with joint function or press on nerves.
Breast cancer is the disease that many women fear most. But early detection and lifestyle changes may reduce your risk.
Think you have a broken ankle or broken foot? Treatment for these common injuries depends on the exact site and severity of the fracture.
Broken arm? If your arm hurts too much to use normally, seek prompt medical care.
A broken collarbone, a common bone fracture during childhood and adolescence, can typically be treated with ice, pain relievers, a sling and physical therapy.
Broken leg — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of this type of fracture.
A broken nose, also called a nasal fracture, is a break or crack in a bone in your nose.
A broken rib, or fractured rib, is a common injury that occurs when one of the bones in your rib cage breaks or cracks.
The key to complete healing of a broken wrist or a broken hand is getting your injury looked at and treated promptly.
Brucellosis is an infectious disease that spreads from animals to people, mainly via unpasteurized dairy products. Travelers should take special care to avoid infection.
Bulimia often leads to a secret life of shame. Find out what's behind this life-threatening disease and how to treat it.
A bunion can create pain and pressure at the base of your big toe. Wearing roomier shoes can provide relief.
Bursitis is a painful condition caused by inflammation in one or more of the sacs that cushion and lubricate the areas around your joints.
Learn about cancer, what it looks like and what causes it.
Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancerous tumors that most often occur in the gastrointestinal tract or in the lungs.
Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by compression of the nerve running through your wrist. Treatment can provide relief.
Castleman disease is a rare illness that affects your lymph nodes and other immune-cell structures of your body.
Take cavities and tooth decay seriously. Brushing, sealants and avoiding certain foods are important ways to prevent cavities, toothache pain and tooth loss.
Cervical cancer is a common and often preventable reproductive cancer. Find out what cervical cancer is and how it's treated.
Cervical spondylosis is a chronic degeneration of the bones and disks of the neck, most likely caused by aging and wear and tear.
Chagas disease, a condition caused by a parasite, usually is transmitted to humans through feces of the infected triatomine bug.
Chondromalacia patella is a knee condition that plagues many runners. It's often caused by overuse or injury.
Chronic constipation can cause bloating and abdominal discomfort.
More than an annoyance, a chronic cough can significantly affect your quality of life. Find out how it's diagnosed and treated.
Don't ignore exercise-related pain, pressure or numbness, because it may indicate chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Proper treatment can get you back to your favorite sport.
Chronic pelvic pain is pain in your pelvic region — the area below your bellybutton and between your hips — that lasts six months or longer.
Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare disorder marked by blood vessel inflammation that affects organs throughout the body. Asthma is the most common sign.
Clubfoot is a treatable birth defect in which the foot twists awkwardly at the ankle. Untreated, an awkward gait and other problems may result.
If your baby has colic — excessive crying with no apparent cause — take heart. It often improves by age 3 months.
Colon cancer and rectal cancer combined are the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Regular screening tests can help reduce your risk.
Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic, painful disease that typically affects an arm or leg that was recently injured or infected.
Constipation in children is common. Often, simple changes in diet and routine are helpful.
Conversion disorder occurs when your response to stress shows up as seizures, paralysis or another physical symptom.
Craniosynostosis is a birth defect in which one or more of the bony plates of a baby's skull fuse prematurely, misshaping the head.
The barking cough of croup can be scary. But it's usually not serious and gets better with rest and fluids.
Earlier detection and better treatments have improved the outlook for people with cystic fibrosis.
Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. It's most often caused by a bacterial infection but may have other causes.
DISH most often occurs in the spine, but it can affect other joints in your body. Get the basics on this condition.
Dislocated elbow — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, causes, treatments of this common elbow injury.
A dislocated shoulder occurs when the upper arm bone pops out of its cup-shaped socket. Prompt medical attention is important.
A blow to your joint can dislocate the bones that meet at that joint. Don't try popping them back into place yourself. Get medical help.
Dry socket, a painful complication of tooth extraction, results from improper healing of the surgical wound.
Dwarfism — an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches (147 centimeters) or less — is caused by a medical or genetic condition.
Difficulty swallowing can be painful and may indicate a serious medical problem.
Edema — swelling caused by excess fluid in tissues — can affect any part of your body. Treating the underlying cause is key to resolving edema.
Encopresis occurs when a child resists having bowel movements, causing stool to collect in the colon and rectum. Leakage of liquid stool also is common.
Endometrial cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. If detected early, this cancer is often successfully treated.
An enlarged spleen is usually a sign of an underlying problem. Treatment varies, depending on what's causing the enlargement.
Epiglottitis occurs when the small "lid" above your windpipe swells, blocking the flow of air into your lungs. Emergency care can prevent life-threatening complications.
Reduce your risk of esophageal cancer by eating more fruits and vegetables.
Esophageal spasms are irregular contractions of the esophageal muscles, which impair the movement of food to the stomach.
Don't be in a hurry to treat a low-grade fever — it's probably helping your body fight infection. High or lasting fevers may need medical attention.
Fibrous dysplasia is a bone disorder that destroys and replaces normal bone with scar-like tissue, causing brittleness and deformity in the affected bones.
Many people are born with flatfeet; others experience fallen arches. Custom-designed shoe inserts can support your arches and prevent complications.
Foot drop is a general term used to describe difficulty lifting the front part of the foot. Treatment depends on the underlying cause.
Frostbite — Comprehensive overview covers causes, symptoms and treatments of this cold injury.
Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a condition characterized by stiffness, pain and limited motion in the shoulder joint.
Gallbladder cancer is an uncommon cancer that begins in your gallbladder.
Ganglion cysts are noncancerous fluid-filled lumps (cysts) that sometimes develop in the tendons or joints of the wrist, hand or foot.
Gangrene is tissue death that occurs in a part of your body, most often in the hands and feet. It's usually caused by an interruption in blood flow.
Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of your stomach. This sometimes painful condition may lead to stomach ulcers.
Frequent or severe heartburn may be GERD — a chronic condition in which food or liquid travels backward from the stomach to the esophagus.
Glomerulonephritis affects your kidneys' filtering function. Complications include high blood pressure, protein in the urine (proteinuria) and kidney failure.
The pain of golfer's elbow doesn't have to keep you off the course. Here's how to get back into the swing of things.
The extra flexibility of children's bones makes them more prone to greenstick fractures — an injury in which a bone bends and cracks.
The term "growing pains" may be a misnomer because there's no evidence that growth hurts. Still, the nighttime leg pain is real for many kids.
Growth plate fractures can interfere with your child's normal bone growth, resulting in a stunted or twisted limb. Prompt, proper care is essential.
Hamstring injury — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, treatments, self-care, prevention of this leg muscle injury.
The chest pain of heartburn is a common and manageable condition.
Heatstroke is the dangerous escalation of two other heat-related conditions, heat cramps and heat exhaustion. Seek immediate medical attention if you have this condition.
Back pain may mean you have a herniated disk — but not always. In fact, you can have disk herniation without pain. Here are the facts.
High potassium (hyperkalemia) has many possible causes, including reduced kidney function. Hyperkalemia can be life-threatening if not treated.
A hip fracture is a serious injury, potentially life-threatening. But many people are able to make a good recovery.
Hirschsprung's disease, a disease of the colon, is present at birth and can cause serious problems passing stool.
Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease) is cancer of the lymphatic system. Many early symptoms of this cancer resemble those of the flu.
Hyperparathyroidism, or overactivity of one or more parathyroid glands, raises blood-calcium levels. The disorder can weaken bones and lead to other serious complications.
Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder in which your parathyroid glands secrete abnormally low levels of parathyroid hormone, causing symptoms such as muscle aches.
Impacted wisdom teeth don't have room to emerge or grow normally. Learn about dental problems related to impacted wisdom teeth and your treatment options.
Indigestion can ruin meals and make you feel uncomfortable. Take steps to prevent symptoms like upset stomach, bloating and pain.
Spit up happens. Often, changes in feeding technique help keep reflux under control.
Inflammatory bowel disease can be painful and debilitating, and it can cause life-threatening complications. Find out more about treating this digestive system disorder.
Inflammatory breast cancer occurs when cancer cells clog lymphatic vessels in the skin of the breast. It's a rare but deadly form of cancer.
Intestinal obstruction — a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention — occurs when a blockage of the intestine prevents food or fluid from passing through.
A rare but serious disorder, intussusception occurs when one part of the intestine slides into an adjacent part, often causing intestinal obstruction.
Invasive lobular carcinoma is a form of breast cancer that develops in a milk-producing lobule of breast tissue.
Iritis is inflammation that affects the colored area of your eye called the iris. This serious condition can affect your vision if left untreated.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is the most common type of arthritis in children. In most cases, it's not a lifelong disorder.
When kidney cancer is diagnosed and treated early, the chances for recovery are better.
Knee bursitis, inflammation of small fluid-filled sacs in the knee joint, causes pain and limits mobility.
Find out what could cause knee pain.
Kyphosis, an abnormal rounding of the upper spine, may occur as a result of poor posture or disease, causing a hunchbacked appearance.
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is a rare childhood hip condition that requires specialty care.
Smoking increases your risk of lung cancer. Quit now and reduce your risk.
Lupus is a chronic disease that can affect your skin, joints and organs. With proper care, most people with lupus live relatively active, healthy lives.
For male breast cancer, awareness and early diagnosis are key to successful treatment.
Fever, headache and stiff neck are common signs and symptoms of meningitis — an infection of the membranes and fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Meralgia paresthetica — the result of a compressed sensory nerve — is characterized by tingling, numbness and burning pain in your outer thigh.
Metatarsalgia can sideline professional athletes and weekend warriors alike. Learn how to protect yourself from this foot injury.
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance often isn't serious, but it can increase your risk of certain diseases, including some types of cancer.
Morton's neuroma is a growth of nerve tissue in your foot that may be caused by pressure or irritation. It can be painful.
Mouth cancer includes cancer that occurs in the mouth or on the lips.
Multiple myeloma is cancer of your bone marrow plasma cells. The disease can make you prone to infections and damage your bones and kidneys.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare in the United States but more common in some other parts of the world.
Although often eased with simple techniques at home, neck pain can sometimes be a symptom of a more serious problem requiring medical treatment.
Neuroblastoma most commonly affects children age 5 and younger. It's the most common form of cancer in babies.
Neurofibromatosis — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of this genetic disorder.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer originating in the lymphatic system. It's caused by abnormal white blood cells, and often the only sign is swollen lymph nodes.
Osgood-Schlatter disease can cause pain, swelling and tenderness below the kneecap. This common condition often affects young athletes involved in running, jumping and bending activities.
The wear and tear of aging may take a toll on your joints. Find out how to manage osteoarthritis.
Osteochondritis dissecans occurs when a piece of and bone loosens and separates from the bone.
Osteomyelitis is a bone infection that commonly affects the long bones in the arms and legs in children, and the spine and pelvis in adults.
Your bones are made up of living tissue that's continually being renewed. Paget's disease of bone disrupts that process, sometimes causing serious complications.
Paget's disease of the breast is a form of breast cancer that involves the nipple. Understand treatment options for this rare breast cancer.
Don't let the common term "jumper's knee" fool you. Patellar tendinitis can affect anyone — no matter how frequently or infrequently you jump.
Peptic ulcers are painful sores that commonly affect the lining of your stomach and upper small intestine. The most frequent cause is a treatable infection.
Peritonitis is an infection of the membrane that lines your inner abdominal wall and covers the organs within your abdomen (peritoneum).
Curved, painful erections are often a sign of Peyronie's disease. Find out about diagnosis and treatment.
Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. It generally clears up with the help of simple treatments for pain and inflammation.
Less common than an ACL knee injury, a torn posterior cruciate ligament can be painful and sideline you for months. Find out more.
A posterior prolapse (rectocele) occurs when the supportive tissue between the rectum and vagina weakens, allowing the rectum to bulge into the vagina.
Precocious puberty is a rare condition in which the physical signs of puberty begin to develop too early in children.
Signs and symptoms of pseudogout may seem similar to those of gout, but the causes and treatment of the two conditions are completely different.
Pseudomembranous colitis is an inflammation of the colon that occurs most often in people using antibiotics.
Some people with psoriasis may develop joint pain called psoriatic arthritis. Get the basics here.
Pulmonary atresia is a heart defect that you're born with. Fortunately, treatment soon after birth and ongoing throughout childhood and adulthood greatly improve your prognosis.
Reactive arthritis is an inflammatory condition that develops in response to an infection in another part of your body.
Recurrent breast cancer — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer recurrence.
Rheumatoid arthritis causes joint pain and swelling. Find out how it's treated and how to cope.
Rickets is a severe and prolonged vitamin D deficiency that leads to softening and weakening of the bones in children.
A rotator cuff injury is a painful shoulder condition often caused by lifting, falling or repetitive motions. Explore treatments including exercise therapy, medications and surgery.
Sacroiliitis is one cause of low back pain and discomfort. It's an inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, which connect the lower spine and pelvis.
Sarcoidosis starts in your lungs but can cause inflammation in any part of your body. It can last a lifetime, or disappear in a few years.
The pain of acute sciatica can be excruciating, but it usually goes away in about six weeks. Learn how to feel better in the meantime.
Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine. Most cases are mild, but severe cases may require treatment with braces or surgery.
A separated shoulder is an injury to a specific joint in the shoulder. Conservative treatment is usually effective.
Most cases of sepsis don't cause serious problems. But severe sepsis and septic shock can lead to death if not treated promptly.
Septic arthritis occurs when a joint becomes infected. Find out more about this serious condition.
Shaken baby syndrome — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, treatment of this serious brain injury.
The term "shin splints" refers to pain along the shinbone. Shin splints are common among runners, particularly those just starting a running program.
Snoring may be just a nighttime annoyance, or it may indicate a more serious health condition. It can also disrupt your life and relationships.
Soft tissue sarcomas are uncommon cancers that originate in the soft tissues of your body.
A spinal cord injury affects the nerves that carry impulses to and from your brain. Permanent disability commonly results.
Find out about this rare cause of heart attack in young, healthy people.
The result of torn or stretched ligaments, a sprained ankle requires proper self-care and, in some cases, prompt medical evaluation to ensure effective treatment.
Sprains and strains — damage to ligaments, tendons and muscles — can result from overdoing physical activities. Learn ways to prevent this damage.
Stickler syndrome can affect multiple parts of your body, including your eyes, face, ears, bones and joints.
Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. Simple steps can help prevent this common overuse injury.
Takayasu's arteritis is an uncommon form of vasculitis that affects the large arteries.
Tapeworms most commonly enter your body through contaminated food or water. Symptoms aren't always present, but the prognosis is good with prompt diagnosis and treatment.
Tendinitis is inflammation or irritation of a tendon. This painful condition most commonly affects shoulders, elbows and knees.
Tennis elbow usually results from repetitive contraction of the forearm muscles — causing pain where the muscles attach to the elbow. Rest and pain relievers may help.
Thoracic outlet syndrome is a group of disorders that occur when the nerves or vessels in the shoulder area (thoracic outlet) are compressed.
The most common throat cancers are linked to smoking and excessive alcohol use.
Thumb arthritis (basal joint arthritis) occurs when the joint at your wrist and the base of your thumb develops osteoarthritis.
TMJ disorders are painful conditions centered where your jawbone attaches to your skull. The pain may be temporary or chronic.
Tooth abscess — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, causes, treatment of this painful tooth condition.
Although trench mouth is much less common than in years past, some people still get this painful gum infection. Brushing and flossing are keys to prevention.
Tularemia is a rare, highly infectious disease spread by insects and wild animals. Landscapers, hunters and laboratory workers are especially at risk.
Ulcerative colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) — a serious inflammation of the digestive tract that can cause abdominal pain and diarrhea.
An umbilical hernia causes a bulge near the navel. Most umbilical hernias close on their own by age 1.
Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer that typically occurs in older women.
Vascular dementia is caused by problems with the blood vessels in your brain. Many people with vascular dementia also have Alzheimer's disease.
Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels. It can affect people of any age. Treatment depends on the type of vasculitis.
Vocal cord paralysis occurs when one or both of your vocal cords don't open or close properly.
Water on the knee refers to excess fluid inside or around your knee joint. Find out what causes this common knee problem.
Whiplash is a neck injury often linked to auto accidents. Discover which treatments work and which don't.
Wilms' tumor is a rare kidney cancer that primarily affects children.
Sometimes it really is all in the wrist. Learn more about what causes wrist pain and how it's treated.
Feb. 16, 2012
- Introduction: X-ray. In: Mettler FA. Essentials of Radiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2005. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/165146367-3/903135188/1276/6.html#4-u1.0-B0-7216-0527-3..50004-4--cesec2_7. Accessed Jan. 3, 2012.
- Contrast materials. Radiological Society of North America. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/safety/index.cfm?pg=sfty_contrast. Accessed Jan. 12, 2012.
- Radiation exposure in X-ray and CT examinations. Radiological Society of North America. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/safety/index.cfm?pg=sfty_xray#. Accessed Jan. 3, 2012.
- Bone X-ray (radiography). Radiological Society of North America. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?PG=bonerad. Accessed Jan. 3, 2012.
- Chest X-ray (chest radiography). Radiological Society of North America. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?PG=chestrad. Accessed Jan. 3, 2012.
- Wahl RL. Imaging. In: Abeloff MD, et al. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/165146367-5/903277817/1709/26.html#4-u1.0-B978-0-443-06694-8..50025-7--cesec17_487. Accessed Jan. 4, 2012.
- Rust G, et al. Pulmonary medicine. In: Rakel RE. Textbook of Family Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/191205553-4/0/1481/0.html#. Accessed Jan. 4, 2012.
- Mammography. Radiological Society of North America. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?PG=mammo. Accessed Jan. 4, 2012.
- Keeping kids still during exams. American Society of Radiologic Technologists. https://www.asrt.org/content/ThePublic/AboutRadiologicProcedures/KeepingKidsStillDuringExams.aspx. Accessed Jan. 4, 2012.