Vasectomy reversal is surgery to undo a vasectomy. It reconnects the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles into the semen. After a successful vasectomy reversal, sperm are again present in the semen and you may be able to get your partner pregnant.

Reported pregnancy rates after vasectomy reversal range from 40 to 90 percent. Many factors affect whether a reversal is successful, including the type of vasectomy you had, the time since vasectomy and the experience of the doctor doing the reversal surgery.

Men decide to have a vasectomy reversal for a number of reasons, including loss of a child, remarriage or improved life situation making it feasible to raise a child. A small number of men have a vasectomy reversal to treat testicular pain that may be linked to vasectomy.

Almost all vasectomies can be reversed. However, this doesn't guarantee success in conceiving a child. Vasectomy reversal can be attempted even if several years have passed since the original vasectomy — but the longer it's been, the less likely it is that the reversal will work.

Vasectomy reversal rarely leads to serious complications. Risks include:

  • Bleeding within the scrotum. This can lead to a collection of blood (hematoma) that causes painful swelling. You can reduce the risk of hematoma by following your doctor's instructions to rest after surgery. Ask your doctor if you need to avoid aspirin or other types of blood-thinning medication before and after surgery.
  • Infection at the surgery site. Although very uncommon, infections are a risk with any surgery and may require treatment with antibiotics in certain situations.
  • Chronic pain. Persistent pain following vasectomy reversal is very uncommon.

When considering vasectomy reversal, here are a few of things to think about:

  • Vasectomy reversal may be expensive, and your health insurance might not cover it. Find out about costs ahead of time.
  • Vasectomy reversals are generally most successful when they're done by a surgeon who is trained in and uses microsurgical techniques.
  • The procedure is most successful when performed by a surgeon who has done the procedure many times.

When choosing a doctor, don't be afraid to ask questions about how many vasectomy reversals the doctor has done, the type of techniques used and how often the vasectomy reversals have resulted in pregnancy. Also ask about the risks and potential complications of the procedure.

Before surgery

Before vasectomy reversal surgery, your doctor will likely want to:

  • Take your history and perform a physical exam. Your doctor will want to make sure that you don't have health concerns that could complicate surgery.
  • Check to see whether you can produce healthy sperm. For most men, having gotten a woman pregnant before is proof enough. In rare cases, if your doctor is unsure whether you are producing healthy sperm, you may need additional testing.
  • Confirm that your partner is capable of having a child. Your doctor will want to see whether your partner has any fertility problems, especially if she has never had a child or is older than age 35. This may require a gynecological examination and other tests.

Make sure you know what steps you need to take before surgery. Your doctor will probably ask you to:

  • Stop taking blood-thinning medications. Two weeks before your vasectomy reversal, your doctor may tell you not to take pain relievers such as aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), because they can increase your risk of bleeding. Your doctor may also have you stop taking other medications.
  • Bring tight-fitting undergarments, such as an athletic supporter, to wear after surgery. This will support your scrotum and hold bandages in place.
  • Arrange for someone to drive you home after surgery. Surgery generally takes about two to four hours. You may need additional time to recover from anesthesia. Ask your doctor when you can expect to go home after surgery.

Doctors usually perform vasectomy reversals at a surgery center or hospital. The procedure is generally done on an outpatient basis — without an overnight stay. Alternatively, in certain conditions, the procedure may be performed in the clinic without need for general anesthesia.

Your doctor may use general anesthetics to make you unconscious during surgery. Or your surgeon may give you an anesthetic that keeps you from feeling pain, but doesn't put you to sleep — such as an epidural, spinal or local anesthetic.

Vasectomy reversal is more difficult than vasectomy. It requires specialized skills and expertise. Doctors performing this surgery usually will re-attach the vas deferens in one of two ways:

  • Vasovasostomy (vas-o-vay-ZOS-tuh-me). With this procedure, the surgeon sews back together the severed ends of the tubes that carry sperm (vas deferens).
  • Vasoepididymostomy (vas-o-ep-ih-did-ih-MOS-tuh-me). This surgery attaches the vas deferens directly to the the small organ at the back of each testicle that holds sperm (epididymis). A vasoepididymostomy is more complicated than a vasovasostomy and is generally chosen if a vasovasostomy can't be done or isn't likely to work.

You probably won't know ahead of time which technique is needed. In most cases, the surgeon decides during the operation which technique will work best. Sometimes a combination of the two surgical techniques is needed — a vasovasostomy on one side and a vasoepididymostomy on the other.

During the procedure

During surgery, your doctor will make a small cut (incision) on the underside of your scrotum. This will expose the tube that carries sperm (vas deferens) and release it from surrounding tissues. Next, the doctor will cut open the vas and examine the fluid inside. When sperm are present in the fluid, the ends of the vas deferens can be connected to re-establish the passageway for sperm.

If the fluid is thick or pasty, or if it contains no sperm or partial sperm, scar tissue may be blocking sperm flow. In this case, your doctor may choose to perform a vasoepididymostomy.

After surgery

Immediately after surgery, your doctor will cover the incisions with bandages. You'll put on tight- fitting undergarments, such as an athletic supporter, and apply ice to reduce swelling. You may be sore for several days. If your doctor places bandages after your surgery, ask when it's OK to take them off.

You may be sore for several days. If your doctor places bandages after your surgery, ask when it's OK to take them off. Any stitches should dissolve in seven to 10 days.

After you return home, take it easy. Periodically using an ice pack on your scrotum will help reduce swelling. As the anesthetic wears off, you may have some pain and cramping. For most men, the pain isn't severe and gets better after a few days to a week.

Your doctor may also give you the following instructions:

  • Wear an athletic supporter for several weeks at all times, except when showering.
  • For the first two days after surgery, avoid anything that might get the surgery site wet, such as bathing or swimming.
  • Refrain from sports and heavy lifting for two to three weeks.
  • If you have a desk job, you'll probably be able to return to work a few days after surgery. If you perform physical labor or have a job that requires much walking or driving, talk to your doctor about when it's safe to go back to work.
  • Don't have sexual intercourse or ejaculate until your doctor says it's OK. Most men need to refrain from sex for two to four weeks after surgery.

Freezing sperm

If your doctor finds sperm during surgery, you may choose to have some frozen in case your vasectomy reversal doesn't work (cryopreservation). If you're not able to father a child through sexual intercourse, you may still be able to have children through assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization.

Talk to your doctor about whether freezing sperm may be an option for you. Ask about the possible benefits and cost of the procedure. It isn't always available, and doctors have differing opinions about its effectiveness.

The successful return of sperm and ability to achieve a pregnancy is dependent on several factors:

  • The use of a surgical microscope results in a higher success rate when compared to the use of specialized surgical glasses (loupes) alone.
  • The time since vasectomy has a major impact on your overall likelihood for success. For example, if a vasectomy reversal is performed within 3 years of the original vasectomy, there is a >95 percent chance of having a return of sperm. However, if the reversal is performed >15 years after the initial vasectomy, the success rate may decline to only >70 percent. There is no time point at which a vasectomy reversal can no longer be performed.
  • The age of the female partner or any factors which may impair her fertility may reduce the likelihood of achieving a successful pregnancy.

About three months after your surgery, your doctor will examine your semen under a microscope to see if the operation was successful. To collect a semen sample, your doctor will have you masturbate and ejaculate into a container.

Your doctor may want to check your semen every two to three months. Unless you get your partner pregnant, checking your semen for sperm is the only way to tell if your vasectomy reversal was a success.

When a vasectomy reversal is successful, sperm usually appear in the semen after a few months, but it can sometimes take a year or more. When successful, vasectomy reversal usually leads to pregnancy within two years. The likelihood for success depends on various factors, including the length of time which passed since the vasectomy and the female partner's age.

If vasectomy reversal doesn't work

Vasectomy reversals sometimes fail if there is a sperm blockage that wasn't recognized during surgery, or if a blockage develops sometime after surgery. Some men have a second-attempt vasectomy reversal surgery if the procedure doesn't work the first time.

  • Experience. Over the years, Mayo Clinic doctors have helped thousands of people begin or expand their families.
  • Expertise. Mayo Clinic reproductive endocrinologists and male fertility experts are fellowship trained and are leaders in their field.  They will directly work with you to improve your chances for fertility and successful conception — whether by medication, surgery, in vitro fertilization (IVF) or another method.
  • Team approach. A compassionate team of experts can assess your conditions and your partner's and help you decide on a treatment plan that best fits your needs and preferences.
  • Evidence-based approach to treatment. The Mayo Clinic team actively assesses and incorporates the latest evidence regarding fertility to give you the best outcomes with the least unnecessary testing and delay.
  • Cutting-edge technology. Mayo Clinic offers the latest in traditional and robotic microsurgical techniques including varicocelectomy, vasectomy reversal, and sperm retrieval.
  • Competitive pricing. Mayo Clinic offers state-of-the art surgical techniques with competitive pricing available for many procedures, including sperm extraction, varicocelectomy and microsurgical vasectomy reversal. Estimated pricing may be obtained by contacting the business office.

At Mayo Clinic, we assemble a team of specialists who take the time to listen and thoroughly understand your health issues and concerns. We tailor the care you receive to your personal health care needs. You can trust our specialists to collaborate and offer you the best possible outcomes, safety and service.

Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit medical institution that reinvests all earnings into improving medical practice, research and education. We're constantly involved in innovation and medical research, finding solutions to improve your care and quality of life. Your doctor or someone on your medical team is likely involved in research related to your condition.

Our patients tell us that the quality of their interactions, our attention to detail and the efficiency of their visits mean health care — and trusted answers — like they've never experienced.

Why Choose Mayo Clinic

What Sets Mayo Clinic Apart

Microscopic vasectomy reversals are currently performed at the Mayo Clinic campus in Minnesota by Landon Trost, M.D. who specializes in male infertility. He underwent urologic training at Mayo Clinic followed by fellowship training in both traditional microscopic and robotic-assisted vasectomy reversal techniques. Dr. Trost frequently publishes and lectures on topics of male infertility and sexual dysfunction. His team works closely with Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility in order to provide complete and thorough care for both the male and female partners.

Dr. Trost has achieved excellent outcomes with vasectomy reversal, including pregnancies occurring as early as one month following the procedure in select cases. As success rates depend on various factors, including time since vasectomy and partner age, Dr. Trost reviews and discusses anticipated success rates at the time of initial consultation. To manage costs for patients undergoing infertility evaluation, Dr. Trost and his team make personalized recommendations and discuss anticipated costs prior to ordering additional testing.

Mayo Clinic works with hundreds of insurance companies and is an in-network provider for millions of people. In most cases, Mayo Clinic doesn't require a physician referral. Some insurers require referrals or may have additional requirements for certain medical care. All appointments are prioritized on the basis of medical need.

At Mayo Clinic male infertility is treated by a urologist with training in both traditional microsurgical and robotic-assisted infertility techniques. Procedures performed include vasectomy reversal, varicocelectomy, microscopic testicular sperm extraction (microTESE),testicular sperm extraction (TESE), microepididymal sperm aspiration (MESA), testicular biopsy, vasography, and transrectal ultrasonography with seminal vesiculography, among others.

For appointments or more information, call the Central Appointment Office at 507-538-3270 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. Central time, Monday through Friday or complete an online appointment request form.

Often couples are faced with deciding between pursuing a vasectomy reversal or assisted reproductive techniques such as in-vitro fertilization. In cases where the female partner is younger than 35-40 years old, or if multiple children are desired, vasectomy reversal is often the most cost-effective procedure and will likely eliminate the need for future procedures to retrieve sperm directly from the testicle. If, however, the female partner is over age 40, or if the exact timing of pregnancy is essential, assisted reproductive techniques may be preferred. Your doctor will help you to choose which option may be best in your particular situation.

For questions about costs and insurance, call the Mayo Clinic Business Estimating Office: 507-284-0403.

See information on patient services at the three Mayo Clinic locations, including transportation options and lodging.

Doctors at Mayo Clinic take part in research to develop and refine infertility treatments.

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Aug. 07, 2014