Acute kidney failure is the sudden loss of your kidneys' ability to filter waste from your bloodstream. Correcting the underlying cause increases the likelihood of recovery.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) — often known as Lou Gehrig's disease — is a degenerative condition causing loss of control of voluntary muscles.
Anaphylaxis is the most serious type of allergic reaction. It often occurs rapidly after exposure to an allergen and may be life-threatening.
Ataxia describes lack of muscle coordination while performing voluntary movements. A sign of an underlying condition, ataxia can affect any part of your body.
Back pain is a common reason for health care visits and missed work. Home treatment and proper body mechanics can help you feel better.
Binge-eating disorder can make your life miserable and damage your health. Explore treatment strategies to overcome this common eating disorder.
Bladder stones are small masses of minerals in your bladder — often forming as a result of an enlarged prostate, nerve damage or infection.
Bulimia often leads to a secret life of shame. Find out what's behind this life-threatening disease and how to treat it.
Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing cancerous tumors that most often occur in the gastrointestinal tract or in the lungs.
Are you worried you might have chlamydia? Find out how this common sexually transmitted infection is diagnosed and treated.
Chronic kidney disease, often caused by diabetes or high blood pressure, is the gradual loss of kidney function. Early detection and treatment can help.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a genetic condition affecting the adrenal glands and interfering with normal growth and development in boys and girls.
Cushing syndrome is caused by an excess of the hormone cortisol, originating from your adrenal glands or from corticosteroid medications you're taking for another illness.
Cyclothymia may be a mild form of bipolar disorder, but your fluctuating moods can have serious consequences. Learn about treatment options.
You normally lose about 10 cups (2.4 liters) of water every day — much more during exercise or illness. Learn how to stay hydrated.
Delayed ejaculation can have physical or psychological causes. Discover what causes it and what treatments are available.
Delirium is a state of confused thinking and lack of awareness that often affects people with dementia, terminal illness or multiple serious medical problems.
Diabetes insipidus is a rare condition characterized by intense thirst and the excretion of large amounts of urine.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious diabetes complication. Learn the warning signs — and know when to seek emergency care.
Dysarthria is a speech disorder caused by an inability to control or coordinate the muscles used for speaking.
Dystonia causes involuntary, sustained muscle contractions, resulting in repetitive movements, twisting and abnormal posture.
Hemolytic uremic syndrome is an uncommon condition that can cause life-threatening kidney failure, especially for children and older adults.
Henoch-Schonlein purpura causes inflammation of small blood vessels (vasculitis) and often a purplish rash. It's most common in children ages 2 to 6.
High blood pressure in children and adolescents is often caused by another health condition, but is usually treatable with diet and exercise.
More than 39 million people are living with HIV — the virus that causes AIDS. Millions more are likely to become infected in the next decade.
IgA nephropathy (Berger's disease) is a kidney disorder caused by abnormal deposits of immunoglobulin A (IgA) inside your kidneys.
Infant jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes, is common after birth. Careful monitoring and treatment is important for preventing rare, but serious, complications.
Spit up happens. Often, changes in feeding technique help keep reflux under control.
Frequent urination and pelvic pain may indicate interstitial cystitis, a chronic bladder inflammation. There's no cure, but some treatments offer relief.
Most people exposed to listeria don't become ill. But for those at risk of a listeria infection — a foodborne illness — the consequences can be severe.
Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths in the pituitary gland in the brain. Most are noncancerous (benign). Some may cause overproduction of hormones and associated problems.
Prostatitis, inflammation of the prostate gland, can cause significant male pelvic pain and other symptoms.
Retrograde ejaculation occurs when semen enters the bladder instead of emerging through the penis during orgasm. Find out about symptoms and treatment.
Parenting a child with Rett syndrome can be challenging. Here's what to expect and steps you can take to help your child.
Rickets is a severe and prolonged vitamin D deficiency that leads to softening and weakening of the bones in children.
Secondary hypertension is a type of high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Prompt treatment is often necessary to avoid complications.
Excessive sweating and body odor can be embarrassing. Find out the possible causes and what you can do about this personal problem.
You don't have to accept vaginal problems as part of getting older. Discover treatment options.
Vaginal dryness is a common and uncomfortable condition — but there are effective ways to treat it.
Wegener's granulomatosis is an uncommon disease that causes blood vessel inflammation that can damage lungs, kidneys and other organs. Untreated, it can be fatal.
Feb. 15, 2014
- What you need to know about urinalysis. National Kidney Foundation. http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/what_urinalysis.cfm. Accessed Sept. 3, 2013.
- Wu X. Urinalysis: A review of methods and procedures. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America. 2010;22:121.
- Echeverry G, et al. Introduction to urinalysis: Historical perspectives and clinical application. Methods in Molecular Biology. 2010;641:1.
- McPherson RA, et al. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia. Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 4, 2013.
- Wein AJ, ed., et al. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://wwwclinicalkey.com. Accessed Sept. 4, 2013.
- Pregnancy tests fact sheet. Office on Women's Health. http://womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/pregnancy-tests.cfm. Accessed Sept. 5, 2013.
- Urinalysis: The test sample. Lab Tests Online. http://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/urinalysis/tab/sample. Accessed Sept. 19, 2013.