Twisting the knee can cause a common knee injury known as a torn meniscus. Treatment sometimes includes surgery.
An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a dangerous condition in which a part of your body's main artery (aorta) is enlarged and in danger of rupturing.
An active life that includes sports may also include the risk of a torn ACL. Reduce your risk, and know when to get treatment.
Acute kidney failure is the sudden loss of your kidneys' ability to filter waste from your bloodstream. Correcting the underlying cause increases the likelihood of recovery.
Acute liver failure occurs when your liver rapidly loses its ability to function. A liver transplant may be necessary to make a recovery.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia is a type of leukemia that affects immature white blood cells. It's the most common cancer in children and adolescents.
Adenomyosis can cause painful, excessive bleeding during menstrual periods. Explore symptoms and treatment.
Daily fevers, achy joints and an intermittent, salmon-pink rash may be an indication that you have a rare inflammatory disorder called adult Still's disease.
Alcohol can severely damage your liver — even moderate drinkers aren't immune. Learn more about this serious liver disease.
Ambiguous genitalia is a condition in which a newborn's external genitals don't appear clearly male or female.
Although the absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) is seldom serious, the condition can often be linked to an underlying problem requiring treatment.
Though anal cancer is rare, incidence of anal cancer is increasing. Find out the symptoms and causes of cancer of the anal canal.
Appendicitis occurs when the appendix becomes inflamed and filled with pus, creating potentially serious complications if not promptly treated.
An arteriovenous fistula is a treatable blood vessel condition in which your blood doesn't flow normally through your capillaries. Untreated, it can lead to complications.
Arthritis — Comprehensive overview covers arthritis symptoms, arthritis treatment and types of arthritis.
Ascariasis is a common type of roundworm infection found worldwide. It's spread by poor hygiene and improper sanitation. Infections are effectively treated with medication.
Atelectasis, or collapsed lung, is a possible complication of many respiratory conditions. Find out what causes it and how it's treated.
Autonomic neuropathy refers to damage to or disease affecting the involuntary nerves.Autonomic neuropathy refers to damage to or disease affecting the involuntary nerves.
Back pain is a common reason for health care visits and missed work. Home treatment and proper body mechanics can help you feel better.
A Baker's cyst is a swollen area behind your knee. Treating the primary cause — such as arthritis or a cartilage tear — usually helps relieve pain.
Bladder stones are small masses of minerals in your bladder — often forming as a result of an enlarged prostate, nerve damage or infection.
Blood in your urine isn't usually serious. But any urinary bleeding lasting more than a day or two should be checked by your doctor.
Breast cancer is the disease that many women fear most. But early detection and lifestyle changes may reduce your risk.
Breast pain is a common problem for women. But while it can be worrisome and uncomfortable, it rarely signals cancer or another serious health condition.
Bursitis is a painful condition caused by inflammation in one or more of the sacs that cushion and lubricate the areas around your joints.
Learn about cancer, what it looks like and what causes it.
Carotid artery disease narrows blood vessels leading to your brain and is a common risk factor for stroke.
Cerebral palsy — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, causes and treatment of this movement disorder.
For mothers, cholestasis of pregnancy may trigger intense itching. For babies, the complications can be much more severe. Early delivery is usually recommended.
Don't ignore exercise-related pain, pressure or numbness, because it may indicate chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Proper treatment can get you back to your favorite sport.
Chronic kidney disease, often caused by diabetes or high blood pressure, is the gradual loss of kidney function. Early detection and treatment can help.
Chronic pelvic pain is pain in your pelvic region — the area below your bellybutton and between your hips — that lasts six months or longer.
Alcohol abuse and hepatitis C infection are the leading causes of cirrhosis — a life-threatening condition that leads to irreversible liver scarring.
Cleft lip and cleft palate are common birth defects. Surgical correction allows children with clefts to live normal and healthy lives.
Clubfoot is a treatable birth defect in which the foot twists awkwardly at the ankle. Untreated, an awkward gait and other problems may result.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a genetic condition affecting the adrenal glands and interfering with normal growth and development in boys and girls.
Conjoined twins are identical twins most often joined at the chest, head or pelvis. In some cases, conjoined twins can be surgically separated.
Cystitis is an inflammation of the urinary bladder. It's most often caused by a bacterial infection but may have other causes.
Deep vein thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in veins deep in your body. Recognize the symptoms of this potentially dangerous condition.
Double uterus is a rare condition that sometimes goes undiagnosed throughout a woman's life. Find out how a double uterus can affect your reproductive health.
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that results in mental retardation and other problems. Children with Down syndrome often benefit from early intervention and education.
Usually first detected on a mammogram, DCIS is an early, treatable form of breast cancer. But left untreated, it could become an invasive breast cancer.
An ectopic pregnancy can't continue normally — but prompt treatment can help prevent life-threatening blood loss.
Edema — swelling caused by excess fluid in tissues — can affect any part of your body. Treating the underlying cause is key to resolving edema.
Endometrial cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. If detected early, this cancer is often successfully treated.
Endometriosis is a common and often painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus grows outside your uterus.
You can get an enlarged liver from a number of medical problems or personal habits. Treatment depends on what's causing the enlargement.
Epididymitis is an inflammation of the tube at the back of the testicle (epididymis). The condition is usually treated with antibiotics.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) can be the result of physical or psychological causes or both. Discover what causes ED and what treatments are available.
Although melanoma is commonly a type of skin cancer, it can also occur in your eye. Eye exams can often detect this rare cancer.
Fetal macrosomia — Overview covers risk factors and complications related to delivering a large baby.
Fibroadenoma is a type of breast lump that doesn't contain cancer. Tests are needed to ensure the correct diagnosis and treatment.
Fibrocystic breasts feel lumpy, and they're prone to soreness before your period. They're sometimes uncomfortable, but fibrocystic breast changes are common.
Foot drop is a general term used to describe difficulty lifting the front part of the foot. Treatment depends on the underlying cause.
Galactorrhea is a milky discharge from the nipple not associated with the normal milk production of breast-feeding.
Ganglion cysts are noncancerous fluid-filled lumps (cysts) that sometimes develop in the tendons or joints of the wrist, hand or foot.
Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs only during pregnancy. Controlling your blood sugar level can keep you and your baby healthy.
Glomerulonephritis affects your kidneys' filtering function. Complications include high blood pressure, protein in the urine (proteinuria) and kidney failure.
Goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland due to a variety of causes. The condition can cause difficulty swallowing or breathing.
The extra flexibility of children's bones makes them more prone to greenstick fractures — an injury in which a bone bends and cracks.
Growth plate fractures can interfere with your child's normal bone growth, resulting in a stunted or twisted limb. Prompt, proper care is essential.
Gynecomastia, enlarged breasts in males, is a common problem. Find out about treatments and how to cope.
Hamstring injury — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, treatments, self-care, prevention of this leg muscle injury.
High blood pressure in children and adolescents is often caused by another health condition, but is usually treatable with diet and exercise.
High potassium (hyperkalemia) has many possible causes, including reduced kidney function. Hyperkalemia can be life-threatening if not treated.
Hirsutism refers to excessive hair growth in women. Possibly a result of elevated male hormones, hirsutism is often caused by an underlying condition.
Hurthle cell cancer is a rare type of thyroid cancer. Surgical removal of the thyroid gland is usually required.
A hydrocele is a generally harmless fluid-filled sac that surrounds a testicle, causing scrotal swelling. However, it may indicate a more serious condition.
Incompetent cervix — Overview covers symptoms, risks and treatment of weak cervical tissue during pregnancy.
Spit up happens. Often, changes in feeding technique help keep reflux under control.
Inflammatory breast cancer occurs when cancer cells clog lymphatic vessels in the skin of the breast. It's a rare but deadly form of cancer.
A rare but serious disorder, intussusception occurs when one part of the intestine slides into an adjacent part, often causing intestinal obstruction.
Invasive lobular carcinoma is a form of breast cancer that develops in a milk-producing lobule of breast tissue.
Iron deficiency anemia may leave you feeling sapped of energy. This condition is especially common in women. Iron supplements usually help.
Ischemic colitis is a disorder in which the colon becomes inflamed, usually due to a disruption of blood flow.
When kidney cancer is diagnosed and treated early, the chances for recovery are better.
Kidney stones often recur. Find out what causes kidney stones and how to prevent them.
Knee bursitis, inflammation of small fluid-filled sacs in the knee joint, causes pain and limits mobility.
Find out what could cause knee pain.
A lipoma is a fatty tumor located just below the skin. Treatment usually isn't necessary.
The risk of liver cancer may be reduced by protecting yourself from serious liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatitis B and C.
Find out how to prevent common liver problems.
Liver hemangioma is the most common type of noncancerous (benign) liver mass. Learn how doctors treat liver hemangioma.
Lynch syndrome, an uncommon disorder caused by genetic defects, predisposes a person to develop colon cancer and other forms of cancer.
For male breast cancer, awareness and early diagnosis are key to successful treatment.
Mammary duct ectasia is a noncancerous breast condition in which the milk ducts beneath the nipple become wider, clogged and sometimes inflamed.
Your kidney's filtering system is damaged and valuable proteins leak from the body.
Menorrhagia — heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding — can be a worrisome problem. Treatment options include medications and surgery.
A monthly period is bad enough. Add in painful menstrual cramps, and you may be cursing this thing called "womanhood." How do you get relief?
Miscarriage can be heartbreaking. It might help to understand possible causes and treatment options, as well as what to expect for the future.
Molar pregnancy — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, treatment of this tumor in the uterus.
Morning sickness is common in pregnancy. Learn what to expect and how to relieve your symptoms.
Morton's neuroma is a growth of nerve tissue in your foot that may be caused by pressure or irritation. It can be painful.
Muscular dystrophy is an inherited disease resulting in progressive weakness of the body's muscles. Some forms are milder; others, more severe.
In myelofibrosis, healthy bone marrow is replaced with scar tissue, leading to severe anemia and fatigue.
Myofascial pain syndrome is caused by sensitive knots of tissue in your muscles.
Neuroblastoma most commonly affects children age 5 and younger. It's the most common form of cancer in babies.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity and diabetes. Lifestyle changes may prevent it from becoming serious.
Orchitis, a painful inflammation of one or both testicles, may be caused by the mumps virus or a bacterial infection.
Osteoporosis — developing fragile bones with age — threatens the independence of many older people, especially women. Learn how to avoid bone loss and fractures.
Recognizing the early signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer and exploring new treatment options may increase your chances of surviving this deadly disease.
Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or pockets within or on the surface of an ovary. Although ovarian cysts are common, most are noncancerous and harmless.
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, treatment of this complication of infertility treatment.
At some point, many women experience painful intercourse — for many different reasons. Here's how to discuss the problem and get treatment.
Pancreatic cancer is often fatal. Find out which new treatments offer hope.
Don't let the common term "jumper's knee" fool you. Patellar tendinitis can affect anyone — no matter how frequently or infrequently you jump.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the most common preventable cause of infertility in the United States, but some women don't find out soon enough.
Peripheral artery disease is a common circulation problem affecting the arteries carrying blood to your limbs. Painful in itself, it could signal larger circulatory problems.
Peritonitis is an infection of the membrane that lines your inner abdominal wall and covers the organs within your abdomen (peritoneum).
Curved, painful erections are often a sign of Peyronie's disease. Find out about diagnosis and treatment.
Placenta previa is a pregnancy complication that can cause excessive bleeding before or during delivery. Treatment may include bed rest or a C-section birth.
Placental abruption is a dangerous pregnancy complication. Control your risk factors — and know when to seek emergency care.
Pleurisy is the painful inflammation of the membranes that surround your lungs. The cause can be one of a number of underlying conditions.
Polycystic kidney disease causes clusters of cysts to form in your kidneys. High blood pressure and kidney failure are common complications of this disorder.
Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory disorder that causes pain and stiffness in the neck, shoulders, upper arms, hips and thighs.
Precocious puberty is a rare condition in which the physical signs of puberty begin to develop too early in children.
Having a preemie can be overwhelming. Here's what you need to know about your baby's care and the possible complications of a premature birth.
Preterm labor — Comprehensive overview covers the symptoms, treatment and prevention of preterm labor.
Priapism is a prolonged and usually painful erection. Prompt evaluation is necessary to prevent damage to the penis.
Prostate cancer is a common cancer affecting men. But with early detection, you improve your chances of successful treatment.
Pulmonary embolism occurs when one or more arteries in your lungs become blocked. Surgery, cancer, family history and long airplane trips may place you at risk.
Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, treatment of this uncommon digestive condition in infants.
Recurrent breast cancer — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer recurrence.
Retinal detachment is a medical emergency. Without prompt treatment, this condition can lead to permanent loss of vision.
Retinoblastoma is a cancerous tumor of the eye that generally affects young children. If retinoblastoma is detected early, a cure is possible.
A rotator cuff injury is a painful shoulder condition often caused by lifting, falling or repetitive motions. Explore treatments including exercise therapy, medications and surgery.
A sacral dimple is an indentation in the skin on the lower back — usually just above the crease between the buttocks.
Sacroiliitis is one cause of low back pain and discomfort. It's an inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, which connect the lower spine and pelvis.
A scrotal mass is a lump or other abnormality in the scrotum that may affect the health of testicles. A scrotal mass may be cancerous.
Secondary hypertension is a type of high blood pressure that's caused by another medical condition. Prompt treatment is often necessary to avoid complications.
Most cases of sepsis don't cause serious problems. But severe sepsis and septic shock can lead to death if not treated promptly.
Soft tissue sarcomas are uncommon cancers that originate in the soft tissues of your body.
Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome, a rare condition, may be caused by chronic constipation. Dietary changes may help mild cases.
Spermatoceles are noncancerous, often painless growths that develop on the coiled tube near the top of a testicle. They're common and usually require no treatment.
Spina bifida is a birth defect in which the spinal cord doesn't close properly during the first month of pregnancy.
Takayasu's arteritis is an uncommon form of vasculitis that affects the large arteries.
Tapeworms most commonly enter your body through contaminated food or water. Symptoms aren't always present, but the prognosis is good with prompt diagnosis and treatment.
Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when it has spread beyond the testicle.
Thrombophlebitis occurs when a blood clot and swelling develop in a vein, typically in your leg. The cause often is prolonged inactivity or bed rest.
For people diagnosed with the most common forms of thyroid cancer, the prognosis is usually excellent.
Most thyroid nodules — lumps in the thyroid gland — cause no problems. But nodules that affect swallowing, produce excess thyroid hormone or are malignant require treatment.
Toxic hepatitis is liver damage that occurs when your liver isn't able to break down certain toxins — including common pain relievers such as Tylenol.
Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a parasite. It doesn't make most people ill, but infants and people with HIV/AIDS are at risk of complications.
A heart with tricuspid atresia doesn't have a tricuspid valve. This heart defect prevents blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle.
Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disease. With appropriate treatment, many people who have tuberous sclerosis lead full, productive lives.
Turner syndrome, a genetic condition that only affects females, results in poor growth, poor development of adult sex characteristics, infertility and other medical problems.
Undescended testicle is a testicle that hasn't moved into its proper position in the scrotum prior to birth. The condition often corrects itself.
Don't let fear of losing bladder control restrict your activities. With treatment, you can reduce your symptoms and cope more effectively.
Uterine fibroids are noncancerous tumors of the uterus. Medical therapy and surgical procedures can shrink or remove uterine fibroids.
A sensation of sitting on a small ball or something falling out of your vagina could mean you have uterine prolapse.
A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum. A common cause of infertility, it's usually surgically correctable.
Varicose veins are enlarged veins commonly found close to your skin's surface. Self-help measures can prevent them from getting worse; removing them is an option.
Vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels. It can affect people of any age. Treatment depends on the type of vasculitis.
Water on the knee refers to excess fluid inside or around your knee joint. Find out what causes this common knee problem.
Whiplash is a neck injury often linked to auto accidents. Discover which treatments work and which don't.
Wilms' tumor is a rare kidney cancer that primarily affects children.
In Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, tumors in the pancreas or duodenum secrete a hormone called gastrin that leads to excessive stomach acid and ulcers.
Feb. 23, 2012
- Cosgrove DO, et al. Ultrasound: General principles. In: Adam A, et al. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/linkTo?type=bookPage&isbn=978-0-443-10163-2&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-443-10163-2..50006-3. Accessed Jan. 12, 2012.
- A close look at ultrasound. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm181011.htm. Accessed Jan. 12, 2012.
- General ultrasound imaging. RadiologyInfo.org. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=genus. Accessed Jan. 12, 2012.
- Important questions to ask about the quality of your imaging examination. American College of Radiology. http://www.acr.org/MainMenuCategories/PatientInfo/ImportantQuestions.aspx. Accessed Jan. 12, 2012.