Before sperm donation, you'll likely be asked again to abstain from ejaculation — either through sex or masturbation — for two to five days.
During the procedure
Sperm donation is typically done at a sperm bank. You'll provide a semen sample in a sterile cup through masturbation in a private room.
After the procedure
The sample will be frozen (cryopreserved) and kept in quarantine for at least six months. Then you'll be tested again for infectious diseases, such as HIV.
If all of your test results are negative, your frozen sample will be thawed and sperm quantity, quality and movement will be evaluated again. Sperm samples from some men are more susceptible to damage during the freezing process than are others. Damage caused by the freezing process can also differ among samples from the same donor.
If your sperm meet the quality standards, you'll be selected as a donor. Keep in mind that most sperm banks limit the number of children your sperm can be used to conceive. However, specific guidelines and limits vary.
If you test positive for any medical conditions, you'll be notified and referred to treatment and counseling.
June 13, 2015
- Third-party reproduction: Sperm, egg, and embryo donation and surrogacy. American Society for Reproductive Medicine. http://www.reproductivefacts.org/BOOKLET_Third-party_Reproduction/ Accessed May 19, 2015.
- Ginsburg ES, et al. Donor insemination. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 19, 2015.
- Intrauterine insemination. American Society for Reproductive Medicine. http://www.reproductivefacts.org/FACTSHEET_Intrauterine_Insemination_IUI/.Accessed May 19, 2015.
- Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, et al. Recommendations for gamete and embryo donation: A committee opinion. Fertility and Sterility. 2013;99:47.
- What you should know — Reproductive tissue donation. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/SafetyAvailability/TissueSafety/ucm232876.htm?utm_campaign=Google2&utm_source=fdaSearch&utm_medium=website&utm_term=sperm donation&utm_content=5. Accessed May 19, 2015.