In-depth

Atypical hyperplasia of the breast

Atypical hyperplasia is one link in the chain of progression toward breast cancer. Learn how having this condition increases your breast cancer risk.

Barrett's esophagus

Barrett's esophagus is caused by repeated, long-term exposure of the esophagus to stomach acid. The condition can sometimes lead to cancer.

Bartholin's cyst

A Bartholin's cyst is a fluid-filled lump near the vaginal opening. It's rarely serious, but when infected, it can be painful.

Bone cancer

Bone cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that begins in a bone. It can affect both adults and children.

Breast cysts

Breast cysts are more common in women before menopause. Draining fluid from a breast cyst can diagnose and treat the problem.

Cancer treatment myths

Don't let cancer treatment myths stop you from getting the treatment you need. Here, a Mayo Clinic specialist tackles 10 of them.

Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is a heart muscle disease. Treatment options depend on what type of cardiomyopathy you have.

Colon polyps

Colon polyps — small clumps of cells on your colon lining — are usually harmless, but some may become cancerous over time.

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

Usually first detected on a mammogram, DCIS is an early, treatable form of breast cancer. But left untreated, it could become an invasive breast cancer.

Enlarged spleen

An enlarged spleen is usually a sign of an underlying problem. Treatment varies, depending on what's causing the enlargement.

Fibroadenoma

Fibroadenoma is a type of breast lump that doesn't contain cancer. Tests are needed to ensure the correct diagnosis and treatment.

Gastritis

Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of your stomach. This sometimes painful condition may lead to stomach ulcers.

GERD

Frequent or severe heartburn may be GERD — a chronic condition in which food or liquid travels backward from the stomach to the esophagus.

Hemochromatosis

Hemochromatosis causes your body to store large amounts of iron, which can cause life-threatening complications. The simple treatment is to regularly remove blood.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Inflammatory bowel disease can be painful and debilitating, and it can cause life-threatening complications. Find out more about treating this digestive system disorder.

Laryngitis

Lost your voice? Laryngitis is usually short-lived, and the cause is often simple. But prolonged hoarseness can signal a more serious condition.

Lichen sclerosus

Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon skin condition characterized by white, blotchy patches of thinning skin. This skin disease predominantly affects postmenopausal women.

Liver disease

Find out how to prevent common liver problems.

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)

Despite its name, lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) isn't cancer. But if you're diagnosed with LCIS, you're at greater risk of developing breast cancer.

Male breast cancer

For male breast cancer, awareness and early diagnosis are key to successful treatment.

Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a type of cancer closely linked to asbestos exposure. Find out the signs and symptoms of malignant mesothelioma and how to protect yourself.

Morphea

Morphea is a skin condition characterized by small red or purple patches that develop firm, white or ivory centers.

Mouth cancer

Mouth cancer includes cancer that occurs in the mouth or on the lips.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare in the United States but more common in some other parts of the world.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity and diabetes. Lifestyle changes may prevent it from becoming serious.

Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer is often fatal. Find out which new treatments offer hope.

Peptic ulcer

Peptic ulcers are painful sores that commonly affect the lining of your stomach and upper small intestine. The most frequent cause is a treatable infection.

Proctitis

Proctitis is an inflammation of the lining of the rectum.

Rectovaginal fistula

Rectovaginal fistula — Comprehensive overview explains treatment of this complication due to childbirth, Crohn's disease, cancer or other causes.

Salivary gland cancer

Salivary gland cancer is a rare form of cancer that often begins with a painless lump in the mouth, throat or neck.

Sjogren's syndrome

Soft tissue sarcoma

Soft tissue sarcomas are uncommon cancers that originate in the soft tissues of your body.

Spinal tumor

A spinal tumor can cause back pain, loss of sensation — even paralysis. But recent advances offer more treatment options than ever before.

Swollen lymph nodes

Swollen lymph nodes usually indicate an infection, particularly in children. However, there are many causes, ranging from the common cold to cancer.

Throat cancer

The most common throat cancers are linked to smoking and excessive alcohol use.

Thyroid nodules

Most thyroid nodules — lumps in the thyroid gland — cause no problems. But nodules that affect swallowing, produce excess thyroid hormone or are malignant require treatment.

Vaginal cancer

Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer that typically occurs in older women.

Vulvar cancer

Cancer of the vulva, the outer part of the female genitalia, is rare. It occurs most often in older women.

Aug. 31, 2012