Teenage pregnancy can have a profound impact on a teen's life. Help your daughter understand the options, health risks and challenges ahead.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Teenage pregnancy can be one of the most difficult experiences a teenage girl ever faces. Understand how to support your daughter as she faces the consequences of teenage pregnancy.
Teenage pregnancy is often a crisis for a young girl and her family, as well as the baby's father and his family. Common reactions include anger, guilt and denial. Your teen might also experience anxiety, fear, shock and depression. Talk to your daughter about what she's feeling and the choices ahead. She needs your love, guidance and support now more than ever.
A pregnant teen — along with her parents, the father of the baby and his parents — has a variety of options to consider:
- Keep the baby. Many pregnant teens keep their babies. Some marry the baby's father and raise the baby together. Others rely on family support to raise the baby. Finishing school and getting a good job can be difficult for a teen parent, however. If your daughter is thinking about keeping the baby, make sure she understands the challenges and responsibilities involved.
- Give the baby up for adoption. Some pregnant teens choose to give their babies up for adoption. If your daughter is considering adoption, help her explore the different types of adoption available. Also discuss the emotional impact of giving a baby up for adoption.
- End the pregnancy. Some pregnant teens choose to end their pregnancies. If your daughter is considering abortion, discuss the risks and the emotional consequences. Keep in mind that some states require parental notification for a legal abortion.
In addition to talking to you, encourage your daughter to talk about the options with her health care provider or a specialist in pregnancy counseling.
Pregnant teens and their babies are at higher risk of health problems than are pregnant women who are older. The most common complications for pregnant teens — especially those younger than age 15 and those who don't receive prenatal care — include a low level of iron in the blood (anemia) and preterm labor. Some research suggests that pregnant teens might be more likely to develop high blood pressure as well.
Babies born to teen mothers are more likely to be born prematurely and have a low birth weight.
A pregnant teen can improve her chances of having a healthy baby by taking good care of herself. If your daughter decides to continue the pregnancy, encourage her to:
- Seek prenatal care. During pregnancy, regular prenatal visits can help your daughter's health care provider monitor your daughter's health and the baby's health.
- Get tested for sexually transmitted infections. Sexually transmitted infections — including gonorrhea, chlamydia and syphilis — can increase the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, birth defects and other pregnancy complications. If your teen has a sexually transmitted infection, treatment is essential.
- Eat a healthy diet. During pregnancy, your daughter will need more folic acid, calcium, iron, protein and other essential nutrients. A daily prenatal vitamin can help fill any gaps. In addition, your daughter might need extra calcium and phosphorus because her own bones are still growing.
- Stay physically active. Regular physical activity can help ease or even prevent discomfort, boost your teen's energy level and improve her overall health. It also can help her prepare for labor and childbirth by increasing her stamina and muscle strength. Encourage your daughter to get her health care provider's OK before starting or continuing an exercise program, especially if she has an underlying medical condition.
- Gain weight wisely. Gaining the right amount of weight can support the baby's health — and make it easier for your teen to lose the extra pounds after delivery. A weight gain of 25 to 35 pounds (about 11 to 16 kilograms) is often recommended for women who have a healthy weight before pregnancy. Pregnant teens may need to gain more weight. Encourage your daughter to work with her health care provider to determine what's right for her.
- Avoid risky substances. Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other illicit drugs are off-limits during pregnancy. Even moderate alcohol use during pregnancy can harm a developing baby. Smoking increases the risk of premature birth, problems with the placenta and low birth weight — and drugs your teen takes can pass from her to her baby, sometimes with devastating effects. Even prescription and over-the-counter medications deserve caution. Remind your daughter to clear any medications or supplements with her health care provider ahead of time.
- Take childbirth classes. These classes can help prepare your daughter for pregnancy, childbirth, breast-feeding and being a parent.
If your daughter lacks the finances or transportation needed to obtain prenatal care — or needs help continuing her education — a counselor or social worker might be able to help.
Teenage pregnancy often has a negative impact on a teen's future. Teen mothers are less likely to graduate from high school and to attend college, are more likely to live in poverty and are at risk of domestic violence. Teen fathers tend to finish fewer years of school than do older fathers. They're also less likely to earn a livable wage and hold a steady job. In addition, children of teen parents are more likely to have health and cognitive conditions and are more likely to be neglected or abused. Girls born to teen parents are more likely to experience teenage pregnancy themselves.
If your daughter decides to continue the pregnancy, address these challenges head-on. Discuss her goals for the future and how she might go about achieving them as a parent. Look for special programs available to help pregnant teens remain in school or complete course work from home. Encourage your daughter to take parenting classes and help her prepare to financially support and raise a child.
Whatever choice your daughter makes, be there for her as much as possible. Your love and support will help her deal with pregnancy and the challenges ahead.
Oct. 08, 2011
- Chacko MR. Pregnancy in adolescents. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed July 29, 2011.
- Especially for teens: Having a baby. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp103.cfm. Accessed Aug. 16, 2011.
- Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines, Food and Nutrition Board, and Board on Children, Youth and Families. Weight gain during pregnancy: Reexamining the guidelines. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. http://www.nap.edu. Accessed Aug. 16, 2011.
- Tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and pregnancy. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp170.cfm. Accessed Aug. 16, 2011.
- Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp071.cfm. Accessed Aug. 16, 2011.
- Paranjothy S, et al. Teenage pregnancy: Who suffers? Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2009;94:239.