Second trimester pregnancy: What to expect
The second trimester of pregnancy is often the most enjoyable. Find out how to relieve common symptoms — and consider ways to prepare for what's ahead.By Mayo Clinic Staff
The second trimester of pregnancy often brings a renewed sense of well-being. The worst of the nausea has usually passed, and your baby isn't big enough to crowd your abdominal organs and make you uncomfortable. Yet dramatic pregnancy symptoms are on the horizon. Here's what to expect.
Second trimester pregnancy: Your body
During the second trimester of pregnancy, you might notice physical changes from head to toe.
Your breasts might keep growing, thanks to additional fat accumulating and in preparation for producing milk. However, some of the initial breast tenderness will likely improve. A supportive bra is a must.
As your uterus becomes heavier and expands to make room for the baby, your abdomen expands — sometimes rapidly. Starting in the second trimester, expect to gain 3 to 4 pounds (about 1.4 to 1.8 kilograms) a month until delivery.
However, if you were overweight or obese before pregnancy, your health care provider might recommend gaining less. Work with your health care provider to determine what's best in your case and to manage your weight throughout pregnancy.
Braxton Hicks contractions
Your uterus might start contracting to build strength for the big job ahead. You might feel these "warm-ups", called Braxton Hicks contractions, in your abdomen. They're usually weak and come and go unpredictably. Contact your health care provider if the contractions become painful or regular. This could be a sign of preterm labor.
Hormonal changes during pregnancy stimulate an increase in pigment-bearing cells (melanin) in your skin. As a result, you might notice dark patches on your face. You might also see a faint, dark line down your abdomen (linea nigra). These skin changes are common and usually fade after delivery. Sun exposure, however, can aggravate the issue. When you're outdoors, use sunscreen.
You might notice pink, red or purple streaks along your abdomen, breasts, buttocks or thighs during the second trimester of pregnancy. Your stretching skin might also be itchy. Moisturizers can help. Although stretch marks can't be prevented, most stretch marks eventually fade in intensity.
Nasal and gum problems
As pregnancy increases your circulation, more blood flows through your body's mucous membranes. This causes the lining of your nose and airway to swell, which can restrict airflow and lead to snoring, congestion and nosebleeds. Increased blood circulation can also soften your gums, which might cause minor bleeding when you brush or floss your teeth. Switching to a softer toothbrush can help decrease irritation.
Pregnancy causes your blood vessels to dilate and your blood pressure to drop, which might leave you dizzy. If you're having trouble with dizziness, drink plenty of fluids and rise slowly after lying or sitting down. When you feel dizzy, lie down on your left side to restore your blood pressure.
Leg cramps are common as pregnancy progresses, often striking at night. To help prevent leg cramps during pregnancy, stretch your calf muscles before bed. It also helps to stay physically active and drink plenty of fluids. If a leg cramp strikes, stretch the calf muscle on the affected side. A hot shower, warm bath or ice massage also might help.
You might notice a thin, white vaginal discharge. This acidic discharge is thought to help suppress the growth of potentially harmful bacteria or yeast. You might want to wear nondeodorant panty liners for comfort. Contact your health care provider if the discharge becomes strong smelling, green or yellowish, or if it's accompanied by pain, soreness or itching. This could indicate a vaginal infection.
Bladder and kidney infections
Hormonal changes slow the flow of urine, and your expanding uterus might get in the way — both factors that increase the risk of bladder and kidney infections. Contact your health care provider if you notice pain when you urinate or you have a fever or backache. Left untreated, urinary infections increase the risk of pregnancy complications.
May. 05, 2014
See more In-depth
- Hill CC, et al. Physiologic changes in pregnancy. Surgical Clinics of North America. 2008;88:391.
- Frequently asked questions. Pregnancy FAQ169. Skin conditions during pregnancy. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq169.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20140106T1519409256. Accessed Jan. 6, 2014.
- You and your baby: Prenatal Care, Labor and Delivery, and Postpartum Care. Washington, D.C.: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2011.
- Bastian LA, et al. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of early pregnancy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 6, 2014.
- Lockwood CJ, et al. Prenatal care (second and third trimesters). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 6, 2014.
- Pregnancy — Staying healthy and safe. The National Women's Health Information Center. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/you-are-pregnant/staying-healthy-safe.html. Accessed Nov. 20, 2013.
- Pregnancy — Stages of pregnancy. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/you-are-pregnant/stages-of-pregnancy.html. Accessed Nov. 20, 2013.
- Frequently asked questions. Gynecologic problems FAQ028. Vaginitis. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq028.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20140214T1301255182. Accessed Jan. 6, 2014.
- Frequently asked questions. Gynecologic problems FAQ050. Urinary tract infections. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq050.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20140214T1301512165. Accessed Jan. 6, 2014.
- Frequently asked questions. Labor, delivery and postpartum care FAQ004. How to tell when labor begins. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq004.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20140106T1623284920. Accessed Jan. 6, 2014.
- Bermas BL. Musculoskeletal changes and pain during pregnancy and postpartum. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 6, 2014.
- Goldstein BG, et al. Melasma. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 6, 2014.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Your Pregnancy and Childbirth Month to Month. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2010:121.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Obstetric Practice. Committee Opinion No. 548 Weight gain during pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2013;121:210.