Whole grains: Hearty options for a healthy diet
Find out why whole grains are better than refined grains and how to add more to your diet.By Mayo Clinic Staff
Grains, especially whole grains, are an essential part of a healthy diet. All types of grains are good sources of complex carbohydrates and some key vitamins and minerals. Grains are also naturally low in fat. All of this makes grains a healthy option. Better yet, they've been linked to a lower risk of heart disease, diabetes, certain cancers and other health problems.
The healthiest kinds of grains are whole grains. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that at least half of all the grains you eat are whole grains. Chances are you eat lots of grains already. But are they whole grains? If you're like most people, you're not getting enough whole grains in your diet. See how to make whole grains a part of your healthy diet.
Types of grains
Also called cereals, grains and whole grains are the seeds of grasses cultivated for food. Grains and whole grains come in many shapes and sizes, from large kernels of popcorn to small quinoa seeds.
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- Whole grains. These are unrefined grains that haven't had their bran and germ removed by milling. Whole grains are better sources of fiber and other important nutrients, such as selenium, potassium and magnesium. Whole grains are either single foods, such as brown rice and popcorn, or ingredients in products, such as buckwheat in pancakes or whole wheat in bread.
- Refined grains. Refined grains are milled, a process that strips out both the bran and germ to give them a finer texture and extend their shelf life. The refining process also removes many nutrients, including fiber. Refined grains include white flour, white rice, white bread and degermed cornflower. Many breads, cereals, crackers, desserts and pastries are made with refined grains, too.
- Enriched grains. Enriched means that some of the nutrients lost during processing are added back in. Some enriched grains are grains that have lost B vitamins added back in — but not the lost natural fiber. Fortifying means adding in nutrients that don't occur naturally in the food. Most refined grains are enriched, and many enriched grains also are fortified with other vitamins and minerals, such as folic acid and iron. Some countries require certain refined grains to be enriched. Whole grains may or may not be fortified.
See more In-depth
- Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-PolicyDocument.htm. Accessed May 15, 2014.
- Dole Food Company, et al. Encyclopedia of Foods: A Guide to Healthy Nutrition. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press; 2002.
- Cho SS, et al. Consumption of cereal fiber, mixtures of whole grains and bran, and whole grains and risk reduction in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013;98:594.
- Maras JE, et al. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2009;22:53.
- Choosing whole grains FAQ. Eat right Ontario. http://www.eatrightontario.ca/en/Articles/Food-guides/Choosing-Whole-Grains-FAQs.aspx. Accessed May 15, 2014.
- Duyff RL. American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 4th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons; 2012.
- What foods are in the grains group? U.S. Department of Agriculture. http://www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/grains.html. Accessed May 15, 2014.
- O'Neil C, et al. Whole-grain consumption is associated with diet quality and nutrient intake in adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2010;110:1461.
- Zeratsky KA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 15, 2014.