Healthy diets come in all shapes and sizes. Pick one and discover how easy it is to eat healthy.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
A healthy diet can be illustrated in many ways, but it's often found in the shape of a pyramid. Most people are familiar with MyPyramid developed by the Department of Agriculture, but that's history now. It's been replaced with MyPlate.
However, many other healthy diets are still represented by food pyramids. These include the Asian, Latin American, Mediterranean and Vegetarian Food Guide pyramids, as well as the Mayo Clinic Healthy Weight Pyramid, just to name a few. These graphics reinforce the choices that are the foundation of a healthy diet.
Symbols, such as a pyramid, illustrate how the pieces of a healthy diet fit together. The base of the pyramid is typically made up of foods that should be the bulk of your healthy diet. In contrast, foods you should eat in smaller amounts or less frequently are shown in the smaller sections of the pyramid. The same principle applies to the dinner plate — half of the plate consists of fruits and vegetables, which should be the bulk of your diet.
Of course, no single food provides all of the nutrients that your body needs, so the idea is to eat a variety of foods from each group in the proper proportions to get all the necessary nutrients and other substances that promote good health.
In addition, most healthy-diet plans emphasize the following:
- Eat more plant foods, including fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
- Choose lean protein from a variety of sources.
- Limit sweets and salt.
- Control portion sizes.
- Be physically active.
Most healthy diets are built on the same general principles, but there are key differences that reflect dietary preferences, food availability and cultural eating patterns. For example, the Latin American Diet Pyramid might mention tortillas and cornmeal, whereas the Asian Diet Pyramid might include noodles and rice.
Other differences include:
- Food groups. The food groups among healthy-diet plans vary somewhat. For example, some versions have plant-based proteins — soybeans, beans and nuts — in a separate group from animal proteins found in meat, poultry, eggs and dairy products. This is because animal proteins are often higher in fat and cholesterol, and some diets limit or exclude animal proteins.
- Serving recommendations. Healthy-eating plans also vary in the recommended servings of each food group. The Mayo Clinic Healthy Weight Pyramid, for example, recommends a daily number of servings from each food group. Other plans offer more-general guidelines, such as eating particular foods at every meal, or on a weekly or monthly basis. For example, the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid recommends that you eat whole grains, vegetables and fruits at every meal.
To see how your eating habits match up to these healthy-diet plans, keep a food diary for several days. Then compare how much of your diet comes from the various groups. You may be surprised by the results. To eat healthier, start with gradual changes, such as eating more vegetables, fruits and whole grains, and limiting fats and sweets.
Here are a few more tips to help you adopt healthier eating habits:
- Choose a variety of foods. This ensures that you get all of the calories, protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber you need. Choosing a wide range of foods also helps make your meals and snacks more interesting.
- Adapt the plan to your preferences. For example, a serving of grains doesn't only mean a slice of bread. It can be wild rice, whole-wheat pasta, grits, bulgur, cornmeal muffins or even popcorn. If you need to avoid milk because of lactose intolerance, try yogurt (lower in lactose) or fortified soy milk instead.
- Combine foods any way you like. For example, you might make a meal of tortillas (grain group) and beans (meat and beans group). Or you could top your fish with fruit salsa or serve steamed vegetables over pasta. The possibilities are virtually endless.
Remember to be creative and go for good taste. A variety of healthy-eating plans are available, so why not try a few on for size? You can explore the world's cuisines and improve your diet at the same time.
Jun. 18, 2011
- Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-PolicyDocument.htm. Accessed May 31, 2011.
- My Plate. U.S. Department of Agriculture. http://www.choosemyplate.gov/index.html. Accessed June 2, 2011.
- Traditional diets and Oldways' four pyramids. Oldways Preservation Trust. http://www.oldwayspt.org/eating-well/introduction-traditional-diet-pyramids Accessed May 31, 2011.
- Messina V, et al. Food guide for vegetarians. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2003;103:771.
- Hensrud DD, et al. The Mayo Clinic Diet. Intercourse, Pa.: Good Books; 2010.
- Getting started with MyPlate. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/MyPlate/GettingStartedWithMyPlate.pdf. Accessed June 2, 2011.
- Nelson JK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. June 2, 2011.
- Choose MyPlate: 10 tips. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.choosemyplate.gov/downloads/TenTips/DGTipsheet1ChooseMyPlate.pdf. Accessed June 2, 2011.
- Food groups. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.choosemyplate.gov/foodgroups/index.html. Accessed June 2, 2011.
- The Oldways' Mediterranean diet pyramid. Oldways Preservation Trust. http://www.oldwayspt.org/mediterranean-diet-pyramid. Accessed May 31, 2011.
- The Oldways' Asian diet pyramid. Oldways Preservation Trust. http://www.oldwayspt.org/asian-diet-pyramid. Accessed May 31, 2011.
- The Oldways' Latin American diet pyramid. Oldways Preservation Trust. http://www.oldwayspt.org/latino-diet-pyramid. Accessed May 31, 2011.