Added sugar: Don't get sabotaged by sweetenersDo you know how much sugar is in your diet? See why added sugar is a concern and how you can cut back.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
If you're like many people, you may be eating and drinking more sugar than you realize because it's added to so many foods and beverages. That added sugar means added calories.
Some experts also suspect there's a relationship between added sugars and obesity, diabetes and heart disease, but this view is controversial.
Does that mean you can or should avoid added sugar? Not necessarily. Read on to learn more about added sugar, including where it's most commonly found.
A few facts about sugar
All sugar, whether natural or processed, is a type of simple carbohydrate that your body uses for energy. Fruits, vegetables and dairy foods all naturally contain sugar.
"Added sugar" refers to sugars and syrups added to foods during processing. Desserts, sodas, and energy and sports drinks are the top sources of added sugar for most Americans.
Why is sugar added to so many foods?
Sweetness has an almost universal appeal. So adding sugar to processed foods makes them more appetizing. But sugar is also added to foods because it:
- Boosts flavor
- Gives baked goods texture and color
- Helps preserve foods, such as jams and jellies
- Fuels fermentation, which enables bread to rise
- Serves as a bulking agent in baked goods and ice cream
- Balances the acidity of foods containing vinegar and tomatoes
Why is added sugar a problem?
Foods with a lot of added sugar contribute extra calories to your diet but provide little nutritional value. In addition, added sugar is often found in foods that also contain solid fats.
Eating too many foods with added sugar and solid fats sets the stage for potential health problems, such as:
- Poor nutrition. If you fill up on foods laden with added sugar, you may skimp on nutritious foods, which means you could miss out on important nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Regular soda plays an especially big role. It's easy to fill up on sweetened soft drinks and skip low-fat milk and even water — giving you lots of extra sugar and calories and no other nutritional value.
- Weight gain. There's usually no single cause for being overweight or obese. But added sugar may contribute to the problem. Many foods and beverages contain lots of sugar, making them more calorie-dense. When you eat foods that are sugar sweetened, it is easier to consume more calories than if the foods are unsweetened.
- Increased triglycerides. Triglycerides are a type of fat in the bloodstream and fat tissue. Eating an excessive amount of added sugar can increase triglyceride levels, which may increase your risk of heart disease.
- Tooth decay. All forms of sugar promote tooth decay by allowing bacteria to proliferate and grow. The more often and longer you snack on foods and beverages with either natural sugar or added sugar, the more likely you are to develop cavities, especially if you don't practice good oral hygiene.
Recommendations regarding added sugar
In the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends that no more than about 5 to 15 percent of your total daily calories come from added sugar and solid fats.
The American Heart Association has even more-specific guidelines for added sugar — no more than 100 calories a day from added sugar for most women and no more than 150 calories a day for most men. That's about 6 teaspoons of added sugar for women and 9 for men.
Unfortunately, most Americans get more than 22 teaspoons — or 355 calories — of added sugar a day, which far exceeds these recommendations.
Oct. 05, 2012
See more In-depth
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- Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 2012;112:739.
- Duyff RL. American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 4th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons; 2012:55.
- Johnson RK, et al. Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2009;120:1011.
- Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-PolicyDocument.htm. Accessed July 26, 2012.
- Nelson JK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 26, 2012.
- Schorin MD, et al. The science of sugars: Part 3. Nutrition Today. In press. Accessed Aug. 17, 2012.