Here's what you need to know to choose the best formula for your baby.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
If you're planning to feed your baby infant formula, you might have questions. Is one brand of infant formula better than another? Are generic brands OK? Is soy-based formula better than cow's milk formula? Here's what you need to know about infant formula.
Commercial infant formulas are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Three major types are available:
- Cow milk protein-based formulas. Most infant formula is made with cow's milk that's been altered to resemble breast milk. This gives the formula the right balance of nutrients — and makes the formula easier to digest. Most babies do well on cow's milk formula. Some babies, however — such as those allergic to the proteins in cow's milk — need other types of infant formula.
- Soy-based formulas. Soy-based formulas can be useful if you want to exclude animal proteins from your child's diet. Soy-based infant formulas might also be an option for babies who are intolerant or allergic to cow's milk formula or to lactose, a carbohydrate naturally found in cow's milk. However, babies who are allergic to cow's milk might also be allergic to soy milk.
- Protein hydrolysate formulas. These types of formulas contain protein that's been broken down (hydrolyzed) — partially or extensively — into smaller sizes than are those in cow's milk and soy-based formulas. Protein hydrolysate formulas are meant for babies who don't tolerate cow's milk or soy-based formulas. Extensively hydrolyzed formulas are an option for babies who have a protein allergy.
In addition, specialized formulas are available for premature infants and babies who have specific medical conditions.
Infant formulas come in three forms. The best choice depends on your budget and desire for convenience:
- Powdered formula. Powdered formula is the least expensive. Each scoop of powdered formula must be mixed with water.
- Concentrated liquid formula. This type of formula also must be mixed with water.
- Ready-to-use formula. Ready-to-use formula is the most convenient type of infant formula. It doesn't need to be mixed with water. It's also the most expensive option.
Be sure to wash your hands before handling formula and carefully follow any mixing and storage instructions.
All infant formulas sold in the United States must meet the nutrient standards set by the FDA. Although manufacturers might vary in their formula recipes, the FDA requires that all formulas contain the minimum recommended amount of nutrients that infants need.
Yes. Your baby needs iron to grow and develop, especially during infancy. If you're not breast-feeding, using iron-fortified formula is the easiest way to provide this essential nutrient.
Some infant formulas are enhanced with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA). These are omega-3 fatty acids found in breast milk and certain foods, such as fish and eggs. Some studies suggest that including DHA and ARA in infant formula can help infant eyesight and brain development, but other research has shown no benefit.
In addition, many infant formulas include pre- and probiotics — substances that promote the presence of healthy bacteria in the intestines — in an effort to mimic the immune benefits of breast milk. Early studies are encouraging, but long-term benefits of these substances are unknown.
If you're unsure about enhanced infant formula, ask your child's doctor for guidance.
Don't buy or use outdated infant formula. If the expiration date has passed, you can't be sure of the formula's quality.
Infant formula is generally recommended until age 1, followed by whole milk until age 2 — but talk to your child's doctor for specific guidance. Reduced-fat or skim milk generally isn't appropriate before age 2 because it doesn't have enough calories or fat to promote early brain development.
Jan. 19, 2016
- Questions and answers for consumers concerning infant formula. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk/ucm108079.htm. Accessed Dec. 17, 2015.
- Kliegman RM, et al. Feeding healthy infants, children and adolescents. In: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Dec. 18, 2015.
- FDA takes final step on infant formula protections. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm048694.htm. Accessed Dec. 17, 2015.
- Kleinman RE, ed. Formula feeding of term infants. In: Pediatric Nutrition Handbook. 6th ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009.
- Chung CS, et al. FDA's health claim review: Whey-protein partially hydrolyzed infant formula and atopic dermatitis. Pediatrics. 2012;130:1.
- Holt K, et al. Early childhood. In: Bright Futures Nutrition. 3rd ed. Elk Grove, Ill: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2011.
- Qawasmi A, et al. Meta-analysis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of formula and infant cognition. Pediatrics. 2012;129:1141.
- Fleischer DM. Introducing formula and solid foods to infants at risk for allergic disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 18, 2015.
- Thomas DW, et al. Clinical report — Probiotics and prebiotics in Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2010;126:1217.