By Mayo Clinic Staff
Starting a fitness program may be one of the best things you can do for your health. After all, physical activity can reduce your risk of chronic disease, improve your balance and coordination, help you lose weight, and even boost your self-esteem. And the benefits are yours for the taking, regardless of age, sex or physical ability.
The Department of Health and Human Services recommends that healthy adults include aerobic exercise and strength training in their fitness plans, specifically:
- At least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity a week
- Strength training exercises at least twice a week
Regular exercise can help you control your weight, reduce your risk of heart disease, and strengthen your bones and muscles. But if you haven't exercised for some time and you have health concerns, you may want to talk to your doctor before starting a new fitness routine.
When you're designing your personal fitness program, consider your fitness goals. Think about your fitness likes and dislikes, and note your personal barriers to fitness. Then consider practical strategies for keeping your fitness program on track.
Starting a fitness program is an important decision, but it doesn't have to be an overwhelming one. By planning carefully and pacing yourself, you can make fitness a healthy habit that lasts a lifetime.
Stretching and flexibility
Stretching is a powerful part of any exercise program. Most aerobic and strength training programs inherently cause your muscles to contract and tighten.
Stretching after you exercise may help improve the range of motion about your joints and boost circulation.
As a general rule, stretch your major muscle groups after you exercise. In some studies, pre-athletic event stretching has been shown to decrease athletic performance.
Overall, however, stretching after exercise can help you to optimize your joint range of motion. If you don't exercise regularly, you may want to stretch a few times a week after a brief warm-up to maintain flexibility.
When you're stretching, keep it gentle. Breathe freely as you hold each stretch for around 30 seconds. Try not to hold your breath. Don't bounce or hold a painful stretch. Expect to feel tension while you're stretching. If you feel pain, you've gone too far.
Moving in sport- or activity-specific motion planes in gradually progressive speed (dynamic stretching) may be a helpful complement to static stretching and may help improve athletic performance.
Regular aerobic exercise can help you live longer and healthier. After all, aerobic exercise reduces health risks, keeps excess pounds at bay, strengthens your heart and boosts your mood.
Healthy adults should aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity a week. That doesn't have to be all at one time, though. Aerobic exercise can even be done in 10-minute increments.
And recent studies report significant health benefits from interval training, which means exercising at your near maximal intensity for short periods of 60 to 90 seconds.
For many people, walking is a great choice for aerobic exercise. In fact, walking is one of the most natural forms of exercise. It's safe, it's simple and all it takes to get started is a good pair of walking shoes and a commitment to include aerobic exercise in your daily routine.
Of course, there's more to aerobic exercise than walking. Other popular choices include swimming, bicycling and jogging. Activities such as dancing and jumping rope count, too. Get creative.
Strength training can help you tone your muscles and improve your appearance. With a regular strength training program, you can reduce your body fat, increase your lean muscle mass and burn calories more efficiently.
Better yet, strength training doesn't have to take as long as you might think. For most people, one set of strength exercises for major muscle groups performed two to three times a week is sufficient.
Strength training can be done at home or in the gym. Free weights and weight machines are popular strength training tools, but they're not the only options.
You can do strength training with inexpensive resistance tubing or even your own body weight. With proper technique, you may enjoy noticeable improvements in your strength and stamina over time.
How much do you know about sports nutrition? What and when you eat can affect your performance and how you feel while you're exercising. Brushing up on sports nutrition basics can help you make the most of your exercise routine.
Sports nutrition often focuses on carbohydrates. For example, athletes training for endurance events may eat more carbohydrates in their diet in the days before the event to boost their energy and performance. Protein for muscle repair and growth is another important aspect of sports nutrition.
Of course, sports nutrition goes beyond simply what you eat. When you eat is important, too. To maximize your workouts, coordinate your meals, snacks and drinks. Drink fluids such as water during and between meals.
May 16, 2015
- 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.health.gov/PAGUIDELINES/guidelines/default.aspx. Accessed Dec. 27, 2013.
- Physical activity and health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/health/index.html. Accessed Jan. 13, 2014.
- Tips to help you get more active. Weight-control Information Network. http://win.niddk.nih.gov/publications/tips.htm. Accessed Jan. 13, 2014.
- Peterson DM. Overview of the benefits and risks of exercise. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 13, 2014.
- Information about flexibility. National Institute on Aging. http://go4life.nia.nih.gov/stay-active-flexibility-info. Accessed Jan. 14, 2014.
- Rodriguez NR, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2009;41:709.
- McMillian DJ, et al. Dynamic vs. static-stretching warm up: The effect on power and agility performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2006;20:492.
- Laskowski ER (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 15, 2014.
- McHugh MP, et al. To stretch or not to stretch: The role of stretching in injury prevention and performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 2010;20:169.
- Gibala MJ, et al. Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. The Journal of Physiology. 2012;590:1077.