Long-term care: Early planning pays off
It's best to talk about long term care early — before the need for medical or personal care is imminent. Here's help understanding, choosing and financing long term care.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Long-term care is a term used to describe home and community-based services for adults who need help taking care of themselves.
If you're considering long-term care options for yourself, a parent or another loved one, start the research and discussions early. If you wait, an injury or illness might force your hand — leading to a hasty decision that might not be best in the long run.
Here's help getting familiar with long-term care options.
Understanding types of long-term care
Understanding the various levels of long-term care can help you choose the type that's most appropriate for you or your loved one. For example:
- Home care. Personal or home health aides can help with bathing, dressing and other personal needs at home, as well as housekeeping, meals and shopping. Home health nurses provide basic medical care at home, such as helping with medications.
- Day program. Day programs for adults offer social interaction, meals and activities — often including exercise, games, field trips, art and music — for adults who don't need round-the-clock care. Some programs provide transportation to and from the care center as well as certain medical services, such as help taking medications or checking blood pressure.
- Senior housing. Many communities offer rental apartments intended for older adults. Some senior housing facilities offer meals, transportation, housekeeping and activities.
- Assisted living. These facilities offer staff members to help with activities such as taking medication, bathing and dressing — as well as meals, transportation, housekeeping and social activities. Some assisted living facilities have on-site beauty shops and other amenities.
- Continuing-care retirement community. These communities offer several levels of care in one setting — such as senior housing for those who are healthy, assisted living for those who need help with daily activities, and round-the-clock nursing care for those who are no longer independent. Residents can move among the various levels of care depending on their needs.
- Nursing home. Nursing homes offer 24-hour nursing care for those recovering from illness or injury and serve as long-term residences for people who are unable to care for themselves. Nursing homes also offer end-of-life care. Services typically include help eating, dressing, bathing and toileting, as well as wound care and rehabilitative therapy.
Choosing the right long-term care facility
Selecting a long-term care facility can be overwhelming. Ask these questions to ease the process:
- What level of service do you need? Do you or does your loved one need help with everyday activities, such as getting dressed or walking to the bathroom? Nursing care? What about physical or occupation therapy? What does the doctor say? Determining specific care needs can help you decide which type of facility to consider.
What are your personal preferences? Would you or your loved one prefer a smaller facility or certain living arrangements, such as a single room? Would you rather eat your meals in a cafeteria setting or in your own room? What amenities are most important?
Also consider the rules. Can residents choose when to get up and go to bed? When are visitors allowed, and what social activities are offered? Can residents continue to see their personal doctors?
- What can you afford? Get the details on prices, fees and services. Know what's included in the monthly fee and what costs extra.
- What's available close to home? Being close to friends and family can ease the transition to long-term care. If vacancies are an issue, ask about waiting lists.
What's your first impression? Schedule a tour of the facility. Does the facility seem safe, and are residents treated respectfully? Do they seem happy?
Does the facility smell OK, and is the temperature comfortable? Are there enough caregivers on staff? Later, make unscheduled visits to make sure your first impression was accurate.
How does the facility compare with others? What have you heard about the facility? Contact your local Better Business Bureau to check whether any complaints have been filed against the facility, and use online applications such as the Nursing Home Compare tool on the Medicare website.
Ask a long-term care ombudsman — on official who investigates complaints against long-term care facilities — about the strengths and weaknesses of specific facilities. To find a local ombudsman, use the Eldercare Locator, an online service of the U.S. Administration on Aging.
Get opinions from friends and family who have experience with nursing homes. Also, ask your doctor for a recommendation and if he or she sees patients in any nursing homes. Social workers, hospital discharge planners and local agencies on aging may provide suggestions as well.
March 20, 2015
See more In-depth
- Garavan R, et al. When and how older people discuss preferences for long-term care options. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2009;57:750.
- Your guide to choosing a nursing home or other long-term care. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://medicare.gov/Publications/Search/results.asp?PubID=02174&PubLanguage=1&Type=PubID. Accessed Feb. 24, 2015.
- Nursing homes: Making the right choice. National Institute on Aging. http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/nursing-homes. Accessed Feb. 24. 2015.
- Understanding long-term care insurance. AARP. http://www.aarp.org/health/health-insurance/info-06-2012/understanding-long-term-care-insurance.html. Accessed Feb. 24. 2015.
- Takakashi PY (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Feb. 27, 2015.