Healthy sperm aren't always a given. Understand how lifestyle factors can affect your sperm and what you can do to improve your fertility.By Mayo Clinic Staff
Do your sperm pass muster?
If you and your partner are planning a pregnancy, you might be wondering about the health of your sperm. Start by understanding the various factors that can affect male fertility — then consider steps to help your sperm become top performers.
Sperm health depends on various factors, including quantity, movement and structure:
- Quantity. You're most likely to be fertile if your ejaculate — the semen discharged in a single ejaculation — contains at least 15 million sperm per milliliter. Too little sperm in an ejaculate might make it more difficult to get pregnant because there are fewer candidates available to fertilize the egg.
- Movement. To reach and fertilize an egg, sperm must move — wriggling and swimming through a woman's cervix, uterus and fallopian tubes. This is known as motility. You're most likely to be fertile if at least 40 percent of your sperm are moving.
- Structure (morphology). Normal sperm have oval heads and long tails, which work together to propel them forward. While not as important a factor as sperm quantity or movement, the more sperm you have with a normal shape and structure, the more likely you are to be fertile.
Various medical issues can contribute to male fertility problems, including:
- A problem in the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland — parts of the brain that signal the testicles to produce testosterone and sperm (secondary hypogonadism)
- Testicular disease
- Sperm transport disorders
Age can also play a role. The ability of sperm to move and the proportion of normal sperm tend to decrease with age, affecting a man's fertility. Some research shows that it takes longer for men in their mid-30s and early 40s to achieve pregnancy than it does for younger men.
You can take simple steps to increase your chances of producing healthy sperm. For example:
- Maintain a healthy weight. Some research suggests that increasing BMI is linked with decreasing sperm count and sperm movement.
- Eat a healthy diet. Choose plenty of fruits and vegetables, which are rich in antioxidants — and might help improve sperm health.
- Prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexually transmitted infections — such as chlamydia and gonorrhea — are a cause of infertility for men. To protect yourself, limit your number of sexual partners and use a condom each time you have sex — or stay in a mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who isn't infected.
- Manage stress. Stress can decrease sexual function and interfere with the hormones needed to produce sperm.
- Get moving. Moderate physical activity can increase levels of powerful antioxidant enzymes, which can help protect sperm.
Sperm can be especially vulnerable to environmental factors, such as exposure to excessive heat or toxic chemicals. To protect your fertility:
- Don't smoke. Men who smoke cigarettes are more likely to have low sperm counts. Smoking can also decrease sperm movement and cause sperm to be misshapen. If you smoke, ask your doctor to help you quit.
- Limit the amount of alcohol you drink. Heavy drinking can lead to reduced testosterone production, impotence and decreased sperm production. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so only in moderation.
- Avoid lubricants during sex. While further research is needed on the effects of lubricants on fertility, consider avoiding lubricants during intercourse. If necessary, consider using baby oil, canola oil, egg white, or a fertility friendly lubricant, such as Pre-Seed.
- Talk to your health care provider about medications. Calcium channel blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, anti-androgens and other medications can contribute to fertility issues. Anabolic steroids can have the same effect.
- Cancer treatment. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer can impair sperm production and cause infertility that might be permanent. Ask your doctor about the impact on your fertility — or the possibility of retrieving and storing sperm before treatment.
- Watch out for toxins. Exposure to pesticides, lead and other toxins can affect sperm quantity and quality. If you must work with toxins, do so safely. For example, wear protective clothing and equipment, and avoid skin contact with chemicals.
- Stay cool. Increased scrotal temperature can hamper sperm production. Although the benefits have not been fully proven, wearing loose-fitting underwear, reducing the time you spend sitting, avoiding saunas and hot tubs, and limiting scrotum exposure to warm objects, such as a laptop, might enhance sperm quality.
Adopting healthy lifestyle practices to promote your fertility — and avoiding things that can damage it — can improve your chances of conceiving. If you and your partner haven't gotten pregnant after a year of unprotected sex, however, you might consider being evaluated for infertility. A fertility specialist also might be able to identify the cause of the problem and provide treatments that place you and your partner on the road to parenthood.
June 02, 2015
- Swerdloff RS, et al. Causes of male infertility. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 17, 2015.
- McAninch JW, et al. Male infertility. In: Smith and Tanagho's General Urology. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2013. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed April 27, 2015.
- Wein AJ, et al., eds. Male infertility. In: Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 27, 2015.
- Protect your fertility: A guide for prevention. American Society for Reproductive Medicine. http://www.reproductivefacts.org/publications/index.aspx?id=6557. Assessed April 27, 2015.
- Fritz MA, et al., eds. Male infertility. In: Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011. http://www.ovid.com/site/index.jsp. Accessed April 27, 2015.
- Agarwal A, et al. Clinical relevance of oxidative stress in male factor infertility. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 2008;59:2.
- Hall E, et al. Male fertility: Psychiatric considerations. Fertility and Sterility. 2012;97:434.
- Moyad M. Heart health = urologic health and heart unhealthy = urologic unhealthy: Rapid review of lifestyle changes and dietary supplements. The Urologic Clinics of North America. 2011;38:359.
- The effects of workplace hazards on male reproductive health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/malrepro.html. Accessed April 17, 2015.
- Kumar S, et al. Lifestyle factors in deteriorating male reproductive health. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2009;47:615.
- Swerdloff RS, et al. Evaluation of male infertility. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 28, 2015.
- Cooper TG, et al. World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/infertility/human_repro_upd/en. Accessed April 17, 2015.
- Chiu YH, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and their pesticide residues in relation to semen quality among men from a fertility clinic. Human Reproduction. In press. Accessed April 21, 2015.
- Olive DL. Exercise and fertility: An update. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2010;22:259.
- Hornstein MD, et al. Optimizing natural fertility in couples planning pregnancy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 28, 2015.