Golf injuries: Play it safe with these tips
Golf injuries are common but avoidable. Learn how to protect yourself.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Although golf is a low-impact sport, it's associated with a significant number of injuries. Many golfing-related injuries are a result of poor mechanics or overuse. The most commonly injured area is the lower back, followed by the elbow, wrist and hand, and shoulder.
Follow these tips to stay in shape on the course.
Adjust your swing
The entire body is used to execute a golf swing in a complex and coordinated movement. When this movement is repeated frequently, significant stress is placed on the same muscles, tendons and joints. Over time, this can result in injury.
Understanding the mechanics behind your golf swing can help you prevent golf injuries. Try to:
- Use proper posture. Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart and rotated slightly outward, and with your knees slightly bent. Hold your spine relatively straight; your trunk should be tilted forward, but most of that movement should come from your hips. Avoid hunching over the ball, which may contribute to neck and back strain.
- Stay smooth. The power of a golf swing comes from force transferred smoothly through all the muscle groups, from your ankles to your wrists. If you depend on one part of your body for your hitting power, you may be more prone to injuries. For example, overemphasizing your wrists during your swing can lead to golfer's elbow — a strain of the muscles on the inside of the forearm.
- Don't overswing. If you swing the club too hard or too fast, you may stress your joints. Relax and take a nice, easy swing at the ball. The best golfers have consistent — not necessarily fast — swing tempos.
If you want to reduce the risk of golf injuries, consider taking lessons. What you learn about your golf swing may even help you shave strokes from your score.
Other tips to keep you on the course
There's more to golf than your golf swing. Consider other ways to lower your risk of golf injuries:
July 15, 2015
- Warm up. Before you practice your swing or play a round of golf, warm up for at least 10 minutes with a brisk walk or a set of jumping jacks. Stretch your hands, wrists, forearms, elbows, shoulders, spine and pelvis. Swing your golf club a few times, gradually increasing your range of motion.
- Start slowly. You might start out by practicing your swing for hours, believing it's helping your game. But if your body isn't conditioned for the strain, repetitively practicing your golf swing may do more harm than good. Work up to your desired level of activity instead.
- Strengthen your muscles. You don't need bulging muscles to hit a long drive — but the stronger your muscles, the greater your club speed. Stronger muscles are also less prone to injury. For best results, do strength training exercises year-round.
- Focus on flexibility. Regular stretching can improve your range of motion and lead to a more fluid golf swing.
- Build up your endurance. Regular aerobic activity can give you staying power on the course. Try walking, jogging, bicycling or swimming.
- Lift and carry clubs carefully. Golfers who carry their own bags have higher rates of shoulder and back injuries than do other golfers. If you jerk heavy clubs out of the trunk of your car, you could injure yourself before you reach the first tee. Use proper lifting technique: Keep your back straight and use the strength of your legs to lift.
- Try to avoid hitting objects other than the ball. Elbow and wrist injuries are often the result of hitting the ground or the rough.
- Choose proper footwear. Dress for comfort and protection from the elements. Wear golf shoes with short cleats. Long cleats dig into the sod and hold your feet planted as you swing, which may strain your knees or ankles.
See more In-depth
- DeLee JC, et al. Overview of sports-specific injuries. In: DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed May 30, 2015.
- Cohn MA, et al. Upper extremity golf injuries. Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases. 2013;71:32.
- Golf injury prevention. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00137. Accessed May 30, 2015.
- Lindsay DM, et al. Golf-related low back pain: A review of causative factors and prevention strategies. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014;5:e24289.
- Low back pain. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00311. Accessed May 30, 2015.
- Ek ETH, et al. Hand and wrist injuries in golf. Journal of Hand Surgery. 2013;38A:2029.
- Heat injury and heat exhaustion. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00319. Accessed May 30, 2015.
- Golf injuries. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http://www.sportsmed.org/uploadedFiles/Content/Patient/Sports_Tips/ST%20Golf%20Injuries%2008.pdf. Accessed May 30, 2015.