Is medicine going to the dogs? Yes, but in a good way. Pet therapy is gaining fans in health care and beyond. Find out what's behind this growing trend.
Pet therapy is a broad term that includes animal-assisted therapy and other animal-assisted activities. Animal-assisted therapy is a growing field that uses dogs or other animals to help people recover from or better cope with health problems, such as heart disease, cancer and mental health disorders.
Animal-assisted activities, on the other hand, have a more general purpose, such as providing comfort and enjoyment for nursing home residents.
Imagine you're in the hospital. Your doctor mentions the hospital's animal-assisted therapy program and asks if you'd be interested. You say yes, and your doctor arranges for someone to tell you more about the program. Soon after that, an assistance dog and its handler visit your hospital room. They stay for 10 or 15 minutes. You're invited to pet the dog and ask the handler questions.
After the visit, you realize you're smiling. And you feel a little less tired and a bit more optimistic. You can't wait to tell your family all about that charming canine. In fact, you're already looking forward to the dog's next visit.
Animal-assisted therapy can significantly reduce pain, anxiety, depression and fatigue in people with a range of health problems:
- Children having dental procedures
- People receiving cancer treatment
- People in long-term care facilities
- People hospitalized with chronic heart failure
- Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder
And it's not only the ill person who reaps the benefits. Family members and friends who sit in on animal visits say they feel better, too. Animals also can be taught to reinforce rehabilitative behaviors in patients, such as throwing a ball or walking.
Pet therapy is also being used in nonmedical settings, such as universities and community programs, to help people deal with anxiety and stress.
The biggest concern, particularly in hospitals, is safety and sanitation. Most hospitals and other facilities that use pet therapy have stringent rules to ensure that the animals are clean, vaccinated, well-trained and screened for appropriate behavior.
It's also important to note that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has never received a report of infection from animal-assisted therapy.
More than a dozen registered therapy dogs are part of Mayo Clinic's Caring Canines program. They make regular visit to various hospital departments and even make special visits on request. The dogs are a welcome distraction and help reduce the stress and anxiety that can accompany hospital visits.
Aug. 19, 2016
- DeCourcey M, et al. Animal-assisted therapy: Evaluation and implementation of a complementary therapy to improve the psychological and physiological health of critically ill patients. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 2010;29:211.
- Cangelosi PR, et al. Walking for therapy with man's best friend. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services. 2010;48:19.
- Walsh F. Human-animal bonds I: The relational significance of companion animals. Family Process. 2009;48:462.
- Friesen L. Exploring animal-assisted programs with children in school and therapeutic contexts. Early Childhood Education Journal. 2009;37:261.
- Barker SB, et al. The benefits of human-companion animal interaction: A review. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. 2008;35:487.
- Mills D, et al. Animal-assisted interventions: Making better use of the human-animal bond Veterinary Record. 2014;174:269.
- Harper CM, et al. Can therapy dogs improve pain and satisfaction after total joint arthroplasty? A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research. 2015;473:372.
- Adamle KN, et al. Evaluating college student interest in pet therapy. Journal of American College Health. 2009;57:545.
- Matuszek S. Animal-facilitated therapy in various patient populations: Systematic literature review. Holistic Nursing Practice. 2010;24:187.
- Marcus DA. Complementary medicine in cancer care: Adding a therapy dog to the team. Current Pain and Headache Reports. 2012;16:289.
- Marcus DA, et al. Animal-assisted therapy at an outpatient pain management clinic. Pain Medicine. 2012;13:45.
- What is a therapy dog? American Kennel Club. http://www.akc.org/akctherapydog/about.cfm. Accessed June 1, 2015.
- Caring canines bring reassurance and calm to patients and families at Mayo Clinic. http://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/caring-canines-bring-reassurance-and-calm-to-patients-and-families-at-mayo-clinic/?_ga=1.10539766.377516524.1411397269. Accessed June 1, 2015.
- Guidelines for animal-assisted activity, animal assisted therapy, & resident animal programs. American Veterinary Medical Association. https://ebusiness.avma.org/ProductCatalog/product.aspx?ID=64. Accessed June 1, 2015.