Descripción general

Infertility is defined as trying to get pregnant (with frequent intercourse) for at least a year with no success. Female infertility, male infertility or a combination of the two affects millions of couples in the United States. An estimated 10 to 18 percent of couples have trouble getting pregnant or having a successful delivery.

Infertility results from female factors about one-third of the time and male factors about one-third of the time. The cause is either unknown or a combination of male and female factors in the remaining cases.

Female infertility causes can be difficult to diagnose. There are many available treatments, which will depend on the cause of infertility. Many infertile couples will go on to conceive a child without treatment. After trying to get pregnant for two years, about 95 percent of couples successfully conceive.


The main symptom of infertility is the inability to get pregnant. A menstrual cycle that's too long (35 days or more), too short (less than 21 days), irregular or absent can mean that you're not ovulating. There may be no other outward signs or symptoms.

When to see a doctor

When to seek help sometimes depends on your age:

  • Up to age 35, most doctors recommend trying to get pregnant for at least a year before testing or treatment.
  • If you're between 35 and 40, discuss your concerns with your doctor after six months of trying.
  • If you're older than 40, your doctor may want to begin testing or treatment right away.

Your doctor may also want to begin testing or treatment right away if you or your partner has known fertility problems, or if you have a history of irregular or painful periods, pelvic inflammatory disease, repeated miscarriages, prior cancer treatment, or endometriosis.


Each of these factors is essential to become pregnant:

  • You need to ovulate. To get pregnant, your ovaries must produce and release an egg, a process known as ovulation. Your doctor can help evaluate your menstrual cycles and confirm ovulation.
  • Your partner needs sperm. For most couples, this isn't a problem unless your partner has a history of illness or surgery. Your doctor can run some simple tests to evaluate the health of your partner's sperm.
  • You need to have regular intercourse. You need to have regular sexual intercourse during your fertile time. Your doctor can help you better understand when you're most fertile.
  • You need to have open fallopian tubes and a normal uterus. The egg and sperm meet in the fallopian tubes, and the embryo needs a healthy uterus in which to grow.

For pregnancy to occur, every step of the human reproduction process has to happen correctly. The steps in this process are:

  • One of the two ovaries releases a mature egg.
  • The egg is picked up by the fallopian tube.
  • Sperm swim up the cervix, through the uterus and into the fallopian tube to reach the egg for fertilization.
  • The fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus.
  • The fertilized egg implants and grows in the uterus.

In women, a number of factors can disrupt this process at any step. Female infertility is caused by one or more of the factors below.


La ovulación es la liberación de óvulos de uno de los ovarios. Generalmente, ocurre a la mitad del ciclo menstrual, aunque el momento exacto puede variar.

Como preparación para la ovulación, el revestimiento del útero, o endometrio, se engrosa.

La glándula hipofisaria del cerebro estimula uno de los ovarios para liberar un óvulo.

La pared del folículo ovárico se rompe en la superficie del ovario. Se libera el óvulo.

Unas estructuras parecidas a dedos llamadas «fimbrias» llevan el óvulo a la trompa de Falopio cercana.

El óvulo se desplaza por la trompa de Falopio, impulsado en parte por contracciones de las paredes de la trompa.

Una vez en la trompa de Falopio, el espermatozoide puede fecundar el óvulo.

Si se fecunda el óvulo, se unen el óvulo y el espermatozoide y forman una entidad unicelular llamada «cigoto».

A medida que el cigoto se desplaza por la trompa de Falopio hacia abajo hasta el útero, comienza a dividirse rápidamente y forma un grupo de células que se parece a una frambuesa pequeña.

Cuando el cigoto llega al útero, se implanta en el revestimiento del útero y comienza el embarazo.

Si el óvulo no se fecunda, el cuerpo simplemente lo reabsorbe; quizás incluso antes de llegar al útero. Alrededor de dos semanas después, el revestimiento del útero se desprende y se expulsa por la vagina. Esto se conoce como «menstruación».

Ovulation disorders

Ovulation disorders, meaning you ovulate infrequently or not at all, account for infertility in about 1 in 4 infertile couples. Problems with the regulation of reproductive hormones by the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland, or problems in the ovary, can cause ovulation disorders.

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS causes a hormone imbalance, which affects ovulation. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and obesity, abnormal hair growth on the face or body, and acne. It's the most common cause of female infertility.
  • Hypothalamic dysfunction. Two hormones produced by the pituitary gland are responsible for stimulating ovulation each month — (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Excess physical or emotional stress, a very high or very low body weight, or a recent substantial weight gain or loss can disrupt production of these hormones and affect ovulation. Irregular or absent periods are the most common signs.
  • Premature ovarian failure. Also called primary ovarian insufficiency, this disorder is usually caused by an autoimmune response or by premature loss of eggs from your ovary (possibly from genetics or chemotherapy). The ovary no longer produces eggs, and it lowers estrogen production in women under the age of 40.
  • Too much prolactin. The pituitary gland may cause excess production of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia), which reduces estrogen production and may cause infertility. Usually related to a pituitary gland problem, this can also be caused by medications you're taking for another disease.

Damage to fallopian tubes (tubal infertility)

Damaged or blocked fallopian tubes keep sperm from getting to the egg or block the passage of the fertilized egg into the uterus. Causes of fallopian tube damage or blockage can include:

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease, an infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes due to chlamydia, gonorrhea or other sexually transmitted infections
  • Previous surgery in the abdomen or pelvis, including surgery for ectopic pregnancy, in which a fertilized egg implants and develops in a fallopian tube instead of the uterus
  • Pelvic tuberculosis, a major cause of tubal infertility worldwide, although uncommon in the United States


Endometriosis occurs when tissue that normally grows in the uterus implants and grows in other locations. This extra tissue growth — and the surgical removal of it — can cause scarring, which may block fallopian tubes and keep an egg and sperm from uniting.

Endometriosis can also affect the lining of the uterus, disrupting implantation of the fertilized egg. The condition also seems to affect fertility in less-direct ways, such as damage to the sperm or egg.

Uterine or cervical causes

Several uterine or cervical causes can impact fertility by interfering with implantation or increasing the likelihood of a miscarriage:

  • Benign polyps or tumors (fibroids or myomas) are common in the uterus. Some can block fallopian tubes or interfere with implantation, affecting fertility. However, many women who have fibroids or polyps do become pregnant.
  • Endometriosis scarring or inflammation within the uterus can disrupt implantation.
  • Uterine abnormalities present from birth, such as an abnormally shaped uterus, can cause problems becoming or remaining pregnant.
  • Cervical stenosis, a narrowing of the cervix, can be caused by an inherited malformation or damage to the cervix.
  • Sometimes the cervix can't produce the best type of mucus to allow the sperm to travel through the cervix into the uterus.

Unexplained infertility

Sometimes, the cause of infertility is never found. A combination of several minor factors in both partners could cause unexplained fertility problems. Although it's frustrating to get no specific answer, this problem may correct itself with time. But, you shouldn't delay treatment for infertility.

Factores de riesgo

Certain factors may put you at higher risk of infertility, including:

  • Age. The quality and quantity of a woman's eggs begin to decline with increasing age. In the mid-30s, the rate of follicle loss speeds, resulting in fewer and poorer quality eggs. This makes conception more difficult, and increases the risk of miscarriage.
  • Smoking. Besides damaging your cervix and fallopian tubes, smoking increases your risk of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. It's also thought to age your ovaries and deplete your eggs prematurely. Stop smoking before beginning fertility treatment.
  • Weight. Being overweight or significantly underweight may affect normal ovulation. Getting to a healthy body mass index (BMI) may increase the frequency of ovulation and likelihood of pregnancy.
  • Sexual history. Sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea can damage the fallopian tubes. Having unprotected intercourse with multiple partners increases your risk of a sexually transmitted infection that may cause fertility problems later.
  • Alcohol. Stick to moderate alcohol consumption of no more than one alcoholic drink per day.


If you're a woman thinking about getting pregnant soon or in the future, you may improve your chances of having normal fertility if you:

  • Maintain a normal weight. Overweight and underweight women are at increased risk of ovulation disorders. If you need to lose weight, exercise moderately. Strenuous, intense exercise of more than five hours a week has been associated with decreased ovulation.
  • Quit smoking. Tobacco has multiple negative effects on fertility, not to mention your general health and the health of a fetus. If you smoke and are considering pregnancy, quit now.
  • Avoid alcohol. Heavy alcohol use may lead to decreased fertility. And any alcohol use can affect the health of a developing fetus. If you're planning to become pregnant, avoid alcohol, and don't drink alcohol while you're pregnant.
  • Reduce stress. Some studies have shown that couples experiencing psychological stress had poorer results with infertility treatment. If you can, find a way to reduce stress in your life before trying to become pregnant.
  • Limit caffeine. Research suggests that limiting caffeine intake to less than 200 milligrams a day shouldn't affect your ability to get pregnant. That's about one to two cups of 6 to 8 ounces of coffee per day.
Nov. 24, 2016
  1. Preguntas frecuentes. Gynecologic problems FAQ137 (Problemas ginecológicos FAQ137). Treating infertility (Tratamiento de la infertilidad). Colegio Americano de Obstetras y Ginecólogos (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  2. Preguntas frecuentes. Gynecologic problems FAQ138 (Problemas ginecológicos FAQ138). Evaluating infertility (Evaluación de la infertilidad). Colegio Americano de Obstetras y Ginecólogos (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  3. Infertility: Preguntas frecuentes. National Women's Health Information Center (Centro Nacional de Información de Salud de la Mujer). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  4. Infertility FAQs (Preguntas frecuentes sobre infertilidad). Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  5. Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients (Tecnologías de reproducción asistida: guía para pacientes). American Society for Reproductive Medicine (Asociación Estadounidense de Medicina Reproductiva). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  6. Infertility: An overview — A guide for patients (Esterilidad: una descripción general, guía para pacientes). American Society for Reproductive Medicine (Asociación Estadounidense de Medicina Reproductiva). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  7. Kuohung W, et al. Overview of infertility (Descripción general de la esterilidad). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  8. Preguntas frecuentes. Gynecologic problems FAQ013 (Problemas ginecológicos FAQ013). Endometriosis. Colegio Americano de Obstetras y Ginecólogos (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  9. Kuohung W, et al. Causes of female infertility (Causas de la esterilidad femenina). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  10. Kuohung W, et al. Evaluation of female infertility (Evaluación de la esterilidad femenina). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  11. Kuohung W, et al. Overview of treatment of female infertility (Descripción general del tratamiento de esterilidad femenina). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  12. Hornstein MD, et al. Optimizing natural fertility in couples planning pregnancy (Optimizar la fecundidad natural en parejas que planifican un embarazo). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  13. Alcohol use in pregnancy (Consumo de alcohol en el embarazo). Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  14. Nisenblat V, et al. The effects of caffeine on reproductive outcomes in women (Los efectos de la cafeína en los resultados reproductivos en las mujeres). Último acceso: 10 de mayo de 2016.
  15. Nelson LM. Clinical manifestations and evaluation of spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (premature ovarian failure) (Manifestaciones clínicas y evaluación de la insuficiencia ovárica primaria espontánea [falla ovárica prematura]). Último acceso: 11 de mayo de 2016.
  16. Barbieri RL, et al. Clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome in adults (Manifestaciones clínicas del síndrome del ovario poliquístico en mujeres adultas). Último acceso: 11 de mayo de 2016.
  17. Coddington CC (opinión de un experto). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. 18 de mayo de 2016.
  18. Asante A, et al. Fertility drug use and the risk of ovarian tumors in infertile women: A case-control study. Fertility and Sterility (El uso de medicamentos para la fecundidad y el riesgo de tumores ováricos en las mujeres estériles: un estudio de casos y controles. Fecundidad y esterilidad). 2013;99:2031.
  19. Snyder PJ. Clinical manifestations and evaluation of hyperprolactinemia (Manifestaciones clínicas y evaluación de la hiperprolactinemia). Último acceso: 11 de mayo de 2016.
  20. Chen L, et al. Borderline ovarian tumors (Tumores limítrofes ováricos). Último acceso: 11 de mayo de 2016.