Description and Brand Names

Drug information provided by: Micromedex

US Brand Name

  1. Camptosar
  2. Novaplus Irinotecan Hydrochloride

Descriptions


Irinotecan injection is given together with other medicines to treat patients with metastatic cancer (a cancer that has already spread) of the colon or rectum.

Irinotecan belongs to the group of medicines called antineoplastics (cancer medicines). It interferes with the growth of cancer cells, which are eventually destroyed. Since the growth of normal cells may also be affected by the medicine, other effects may also occur. Some of these may be serious and must be reported to your doctor. Other effects, like hair loss, may not be serious but may cause concern. Some effects may occur after treatment with irinotecan has been stopped. Be sure that you have discussed with your doctor the possible side effects of this medicine as well as the good it can do.

This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription.

Once a medicine has been approved for marketing for a certain use, experience may show that it is also useful for other medical problems. Although these uses are not included in product labeling, irinotecan is used in certain patients with the following medical conditions:

  • Carcinoma, lung, non-small cell (treatment of non–small cell cancer of the lung).
  • Extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer, first-line treatment, in combination with cisplatin (treatment of small-cell lung cancer; used together with cisplatin [Platinol®]).
  • Ovarian cancer, platinum-refractory or platinum-resistant (treatment of ovarian cancer that does not respond to platinum-type medicines).
  • Malignant glioma, recurrent or progressive (treatment of brain cancer that has returned or is advancing).

This product is available in the following dosage forms:

  • Solution

Before Using

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of irinotecan injection in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established.

Geriatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of irinotecan injection in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have severe diarrhea, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving irinotecan.

Pregnancy

Information about this irinotecan-intravenous-route
Pregnancy Category Explanation
All Trimesters D Studies in pregnant women have demonstrated a risk to the fetus. However, the benefits of therapy in a life threatening situation or a serious disease, may outweigh the potential risk.

Breastfeeding

There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.

Drug Interactions

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are receiving this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.

  • Atazanavir
  • Itraconazole
  • Ketoconazole
  • Rotavirus Vaccine, Live
  • St John's Wort

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Adenovirus Vaccine Type 4, Live
  • Adenovirus Vaccine Type 7, Live
  • Aprepitant
  • Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin Vaccine, Live
  • Carbamazepine
  • Fosaprepitant
  • Fosphenytoin
  • Influenza Virus Vaccine, Live
  • Lopinavir
  • Measles Virus Vaccine, Live
  • Mumps Virus Vaccine, Live
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenytoin
  • Rifabutin
  • Rifampin
  • Rubella Virus Vaccine, Live
  • Smallpox Vaccine
  • Typhoid Vaccine
  • Varicella Virus Vaccine
  • Yellow Fever Vaccine

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Citalopram
  • Sorafenib

Other Interactions

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using this medicine with any of the following is usually not recommended, but may be unavoidable in some cases. If used together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use this medicine, or give you special instructions about the use of food, alcohol, or tobacco.

  • Tobacco

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Bleeding problems or
  • Diabetes or
  • Hereditary fructose intolerance, history of or
  • Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) or
  • Kidney disease or
  • Liver disease or
  • Lung disease or
  • Severe diarrhea—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.
  • Bone marrow disease, severe or
  • Bowel blockage or
  • Gilbert's syndrome (an inherited disorder) or
  • Neutropenia (low white blood cells) or
  • Reduced UGT1A1 activity (an enzyme problem)—May increase risk for more serious side effects.
  • Infection—This medicine may decrease your body's ability to fight an infection.

Proper Use

A doctor or other trained health professional will give you this medicine in a hospital or cancer treatment center. This medicine is given through a needle placed in one of your veins.

Irinotecan often causes nausea and vomiting. However, it is very important that you continue to receive this medicine even if you begin to feel ill. You may receive other medicines to help with the nausea and vomiting. Ask your doctor for other ways to lessen these effects.

Precautions

It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure that this medicine is working properly. Blood tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.

Make sure your doctor knows if you are pregnant before you receive this medicine. Using this medicine while you are pregnant can harm your unborn baby. If you think you have become pregnant while using the medicine, tell your doctor right away.

This medicine may cause a serious type of allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Call your doctor right away if you have chills; fever; hives; hoarseness; itching; rash; trouble breathing; trouble swallowing; or any swelling of your hands, face, or mouth after you receive the medicine.

While you are being treated with irinotecan, and after you stop treatment, do not have any immunizations (vaccinations) without your doctor's approval. Irinotecan may lower your body's resistance, and there is a chance you might get the infection the immunization is meant to prevent. In addition, other persons living in your household should not get live vaccines (e.g., nasal influenza or flu vaccine). Try to avoid persons who have taken live vaccines. Do not get close to them and do not stay in the same room with them for very long. If you cannot take these precautions, you should wear a protective face mask that covers the nose and mouth.

Irinotecan may cause diarrhea, which can last long enough and be severe enough to cause serious medical problems. If diarrhea occurs while you are being treated with irinotecan:

  • Check with your doctor immediately. Be sure to let your doctor know if the diarrhea started during an irinotecan injection or less than 24 hours afterwards. Also, be sure to tell your doctor if you had any other symptoms, such as stomach cramps or sweating, before the diarrhea started. This means that you are having a certain kind of diarrhea that may need to be treated by your doctor.
  • If diarrhea first occurs more than 24 hours after a dose of irinotecan, start taking loperamide (Imodium A-D®) as soon as you notice that your bowel movements are occurring more often or are more loose than usual. Loperamide is available without a prescription. Buy some of it ahead of time, so that you will have it on hand in case it is needed. Unless otherwise directed by your doctor, take 4 milligrams (mg) of loperamide (2 capsules or tablets, or 4 teaspoonfuls of the oral solution dosage form) for the first dose, then 2 mg (1 capsule or tablet, or 2 teaspoonfuls of the oral solution dosage form) every two hours. To interrupt your sleep less often, you may take 4 mg of loperamide every four hours during the night. Continue taking loperamide, day and night, until you have not had any diarrhea for twelve hours. It is very important that you follow these (or your doctor's) directions, even though they are different from the directions on the nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) loperamide package label. The largest amount of loperamide recommended on the package label for use in a twenty-four-hour period (8 mg) is not enough for treating diarrhea caused by irinotecan. Notify your doctor if the diarrhea is not controlled within 24 hours.
  • Diarrhea causes loss of body fluid, which can lead to dehydration, a serious medical problem. To prevent this, it is very important that you replace the lost fluid. While you have diarrhea, and for a day or two after the diarrhea has stopped, drink plenty of clear liquids, such as ginger ale, caffeine-free cola, decaffeinated tea, and broth. Ask your doctor about the amount of liquid you should be drinking every day. Also, ask your doctor whether you should use a sports drink (e.g., Gatorade®), which contains other substances, such as sodium and potassium, that may be lost along with body fluid. Follow your doctor's directions very carefully.
  • Because alcohol and caffeine can increase fluid loss, you should not drink beverages or take any medicines that contain them while you have diarrhea. Also, avoid eating foods that may make diarrhea worse, such as bran, raw fruits or vegetables, or fatty, fried, or spicy foods.
  • Vomiting can also increase the amount of fluid lost by the body and increase the risk of dehydration. If vomiting occurs at the same time as diarrhea, check with your doctor right away.
  • Signs of too much fluid loss (dehydration) include decreased urination, dizziness or light-headedness, dryness of the mouth, fainting, increased thirst, and wrinkled skin. If any of these occur, check with your doctor immediately.

Irinotecan can temporarily lower the number of white blood cells in your blood, increasing the chance of getting an infection. It can also lower the number of platelets, which are needed for proper blood clotting. If this occurs, there are certain precautions you can take, especially when your blood count is low, to reduce the risk of infection or bleeding:

  • If you can, avoid people with infections. Check with your doctor immediately if you think you are getting an infection or if you get a fever or chills, cough or hoarseness, lower back or side pain, or painful or difficult urination.
  • Check with your doctor immediately if you notice any unusual bleeding or bruising; black, tarry stools; blood in the urine or stools; or pinpoint red spots on your skin.
  • Be careful when using a regular toothbrush, dental floss, or toothpick. Your medical doctor, dentist, or nurse may recommend other ways to clean your teeth and gums. Also, check with your medical doctor before having any dental work done.
  • Do not touch your eyes or the inside of your nose unless you have just washed your hands and have not touched anything else in the meantime.
  • Be careful not to cut yourself when you are using sharp objects such as a safety razor or fingernail or toenail cutters.
  • Avoid contact sports or other situations where bruising or injury could occur.

Call your doctor right away if you have an unexplained fever, cough, shortness of breath, trouble with breathing, or wheezing after receiving this medicine. These may be symptoms of a serious lung problem.

This medicine may increase your risk of having blood clots. Tell your doctor right away if you start having a sudden and severe headache, trouble with breathing, or problems with vision, speech, or walking.

This medicine may cause some people to become dizzy, drowsy, or less alert than they are normally. This medicine may also cause blurred vision or other vision problems. If any of these side effects occur, do not drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are not alert or not able to see well. If these reactions are especially bothersome, check with your doctor.

Ketoconazole (Nizoral®) and St. John's wort should not be used while you are receiving irinotecan. If you are using St. John's Wort, it should be discontinued at least 2 weeks before the first cycle of irinotecan. If you are using ketoconazole, it should be discontinued at least 1 week before starting irinotecan treatment.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

More common

  1. Anxiety
  2. black, tarry stools
  3. blood in the urine or stools
  4. blurred vision
  5. changes in skin color
  6. chest pain or discomfort
  7. chest tightness or heaviness
  8. chills
  9. clay colored stools
  10. cold hands and feet
  11. confusion
  12. constricted pupils
  13. cough or hoarseness
  14. dark urine
  15. diarrhea with or without stomach cramps or sweating
  16. dizziness
  17. fainting
  18. fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat
  19. fever
  20. full or bloated feeling or pressure in the stomach
  21. headache
  22. increased production of saliva
  23. increased tear production
  24. itching
  25. lightheadedness when getting up suddenly from a lying or sitting position
  26. loss of appetite
  27. low blood pressure or pulse
  28. lower back or side pain
  29. nausea or vomiting
  30. numbness or tingling in the face, arms, or legs
  31. pain
  32. pain in the chest, groin, or legs, especially calves of the legs
  33. pain in the shoulders, arms, jaw, or neck
  34. painful or difficult urination
  35. pale skin
  36. pinpoint red spots on the skin
  37. redness or swelling of the leg
  38. runny nose
  39. severe headache of sudden onset
  40. shortness of breath or troubled breathing
  41. skin rash
  42. slow breathing
  43. slurred speech
  44. sore throat
  45. stomach pain
  46. stopping of the heart
  47. sudden and severe weakness in the arm or leg on one side of the body
  48. sudden loss of coordination
  49. sudden vision changes
  50. sweating
  51. swelling
  52. swelling of the abdomen or stomach area
  53. temporary blindness
  54. tenderness, pain, or swelling of the arm, foot, or leg
  55. trouble with speaking or walking
  56. ulcers, sores, or white spots on the lips or in the mouth
  57. unconsciousness
  58. unpleasant breath odor
  59. unusual bleeding or bruising
  60. unusual tiredness or weakness
  61. vomiting of blood
  62. warm, red feeling over the body
  63. yellow eyes or skin

Less common

  1. Bleeding gums
  2. coughing up blood
  3. decreased urination
  4. difficulty with swallowing
  5. dryness of the mouth
  6. increased menstrual flow or vaginal bleeding
  7. increased thirst
  8. nosebleeds
  9. paralysis
  10. prolonged bleeding from cuts
  11. sneezing
  12. wheezing
  13. wrinkled skin

Rare

  1. Decreased amount of urine
  2. decreased frequency of urination
  3. fast, irregular, or troubled breathing
  4. hives
  5. increased blood pressure
  6. puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  7. rapid weight gain

Incidence not known

  1. Abdominal or stomach pain and tenderness
  2. agitation
  3. bloated or full feeling
  4. burning, crawling, itching, numbness, prickling, "pins and needles", or tingling feelings
  5. coma
  6. constipation
  7. depression
  8. heartburn or indigestion
  9. hostility
  10. irritability
  11. lethargy
  12. muscle pain and cramps
  13. muscle twitching
  14. pain in the stomach, side, or abdomen, possibly radiating to the back
  15. pain or discomfort in the arms, jaw, back, or neck
  16. rectal bleeding
  17. severe abdominal or stomach cramping or burning
  18. severe and continuing nausea
  19. stupor
  20. swelling of the face, lower legs, ankles, fingers, or hands
  21. tightness in the chest
  22. unusual tiredness or weakness
  23. vomiting of material that looks like coffee grounds

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common

  1. Acid or sour stomach
  2. belching
  3. blistering, peeling, redness, or swelling of the palms of hands or bottoms of the feet
  4. cracked lips
  5. excess air or gas in the stomach or intestines
  6. feeling of constant movement of self or surroundings
  7. numbness, pain, tingling, or unusual sensations in the palms of hands or bottoms of feet
  8. passing gas
  9. right upper abdominal or stomach pain and fullness
  10. sensation of spinning
  11. sleepiness or unusual drowsiness
  12. sleeplessness
  13. stomach discomfort, upset, or pain
  14. trouble sleeping
  15. unable to sleep
  16. weight loss

Incidence not known

  1. Hiccups

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.