Description and Brand Names

Drug information provided by: Micromedex

US Brand Name

  1. Aquazide H
  2. Hydrocot
  3. Microzide
  4. Zide

Descriptions


Hydrochlorothiazide is used alone or together with other medicines to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). High blood pressure adds to the workload of the heart and arteries. If it continues for a long time, the heart and arteries may not function properly. This can damage the blood vessels of the brain, heart, and kidneys, resulting in a stroke, heart failure, or kidney failure. High blood pressure may also increase the risk of heart attacks. These problems may be less likely to occur if blood pressure is controlled.

Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat fluid retention (edema) that is caused by congestive heart failure, severe liver disease (cirrhosis), kidney disease, or treatment with a steroid or hormone medicine.

Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic (water pill). It is used to help reduce the amount of water in the body by increasing the flow of urine. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.

This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription.

This product is available in the following dosage forms:

  • Tablet
  • Capsule
  • Solution

Before Using

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of hydrochlorothiazide capsules or tablets in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established.

Geriatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of hydrochlorothiazide capsules in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related liver, kidney, or heart problems, which may require an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving hydrochlorothiazide capsules.

No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of hydrochlorothiazide tablets in geriatric patients. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related liver, kidney, or heart problems, which may require an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving hydrochlorothiazide tablets.

Pregnancy

Information about this hydrochlorothiazide-oral-route
Pregnancy Category Explanation
All Trimesters B Animal studies have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus, however, there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR animal studies have shown an adverse effect, but adequate studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus.

Breastfeeding

Studies suggest that this medication may alter milk production or composition. If an alternative to this medication is not prescribed, you should monitor the infant for side effects and adequate milk intake.

Drug Interactions

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.

  • Dofetilide

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Acetyldigoxin
  • Arsenic Trioxide
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Deslanoside
  • Digitalis
  • Digitoxin
  • Digoxin
  • Droperidol
  • Flecainide
  • Ketanserin
  • Levomethadyl
  • Lithium
  • Methotrexate
  • Metildigoxin
  • Ouabain
  • Proscillaridin
  • Sotalol

Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Aceclofenac
  • Acemetacin
  • Alacepril
  • Amtolmetin Guacil
  • Aspirin
  • Benazepril
  • Bepridil
  • Bromfenac
  • Bufexamac
  • Captopril
  • Carbamazepine
  • Celecoxib
  • Chlorpropamide
  • Cholestyramine
  • Choline Salicylate
  • Cilazapril
  • Clonixin
  • Delapril
  • Dexibuprofen
  • Dexketoprofen
  • Diclofenac
  • Diflunisal
  • Dipyrone
  • Enalaprilat
  • Enalapril Maleate
  • Etodolac
  • Etofenamate
  • Etoricoxib
  • Felbinac
  • Fenoprofen
  • Fepradinol
  • Feprazone
  • Floctafenine
  • Flufenamic Acid
  • Flurbiprofen
  • Fosinopril
  • Ginkgo
  • Glipizide
  • Gossypol
  • Ibuprofen
  • Ibuprofen Lysine
  • Imidapril
  • Indomethacin
  • Ketoprofen
  • Ketorolac
  • Licorice
  • Lisinopril
  • Lornoxicam
  • Loxoprofen
  • Lumiracoxib
  • Meclofenamate
  • Mefenamic Acid
  • Meloxicam
  • Moexipril
  • Morniflumate
  • Nabumetone
  • Naproxen
  • Nepafenac
  • Niflumic Acid
  • Nimesulide
  • Oxaprozin
  • Oxyphenbutazone
  • Parecoxib
  • Pentopril
  • Perindopril
  • Phenylbutazone
  • Piketoprofen
  • Piroxicam
  • Pranoprofen
  • Proglumetacin
  • Propyphenazone
  • Proquazone
  • Quinapril
  • Ramipril
  • Rofecoxib
  • Salicylic Acid
  • Salsalate
  • Sodium Salicylate
  • Spirapril
  • Sulindac
  • Temocapril
  • Tenoxicam
  • Tiaprofenic Acid
  • Tolfenamic Acid
  • Tolmetin
  • Topiramate
  • Trandolapril
  • Valdecoxib
  • Zofenopril

Other Interactions

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Anuria (not able to urinate) or
  • Sulfa drug allergy (e.g., sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, Bactrim®, Septra®)—Should not be used in patients with these conditions.
  • Asthma or
  • Diabetes or
  • Electrolyte imbalance (e.g., hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia) or
  • Gout or
  • Hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol in the blood) or
  • Hyperuricemia (high uric acid in the blood) or
  • Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or
  • Liver disease or
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.
  • Kidney disease—Use with caution. The effects may be increased because of slower removal of the medicine from the body.

Proper Use

In addition to the use of this medicine, treatment for your high blood pressure may include weight control and changes in the types of foods you eat, especially foods high in sodium (salt) or potassium. Your doctor will tell you which of these are most important for you. You should check with your doctor before changing your diet.

Many patients who have high blood pressure will not notice any signs of the problem. In fact, many may feel normal. It is very important that you take your medicine exactly as directed and that you keep your appointments with your doctor even if you feel well.

Remember that this medicine will not cure your high blood pressure, but it does help control it. You must continue to receive it as directed if you expect to lower your blood pressure and keep it down. You may have to take high blood pressure medicine for the rest of your life. If high blood pressure is not treated, it can cause serious problems such as heart failure, blood vessel disease, stroke, or kidney disease.

Dosing

The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For fluid retention (edema):
    • For oral dosage form (tablets):
      • Adults—The usual dose is 25 to 100 milligrams (mg) daily as a single or divided dose. Your doctor may want you to take this dose every other day or on 3 to 5 days each week.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor.
  • For high blood pressure:
    • For oral dosage form (capsule):
      • Adults—At first, 12. 5 milligrams (mg) or one capsule once a day. Your doctor may want you to take this alone or together with other blood pressure medicines. Your doctor may increase your dose as needed. However, the dose is usually not more than 50 mg per day.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
    • For oral dosage form (tablets):
      • Adults—At first, 25 milligrams (mg) once a day. Your doctor may increase your dose as needed and may be taken as a single dose or divided into two doses.
      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Precautions

It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure this medicine is working properly. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.

Check with your doctor right away if you have any of the following symptoms while taking this medicine: convulsions or seizures; decreased urine; drowsiness; dry mouth; excessive thirst; increased heart rate or pulse; muscle pains or cramps; nausea or vomiting; or unusual tiredness or weakness. These may be symptoms of a condition called hypokalemia or potassium loss.

Stop using this medicine and check with your doctor immediately if you have blurred vision, difficulty in reading, eye pain, or any other change in vision during or after treatment. This could be a sign of a serious eye problem. Your doctor will want you to have your eyes checked by an ophthalmologist (eye doctor).

This medicine may cause some people to become dizzy. Do not drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are dizzy or not alert.

Drinking alcoholic beverages may also make the dizziness worse. While you are taking this medicine, be careful to limit the amount of alcohol you drink.

Before you have any medical tests, tell the medical doctor in charge that you are taking this medicine. The results of some tests (e.g., tests for parathyroid function) may be affected by this medicine.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes over-the-counter (nonprescription) medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay fever, or sinus problems, since they may tend to increase your blood pressure.

Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

Incidence not known

  1. Abdominal or stomach pain
  2. back, leg, or stomach pains
  3. black, tarry stools
  4. bleeding gums
  5. blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin
  6. bloating
  7. blood in the urine or stools
  8. bloody urine
  9. blue lips and fingernails
  10. blurred vision
  11. burning, crawling, itching, numbness, prickling, "pins and needles", or tingling feelings
  12. chest pain
  13. chills
  14. clay-colored stools
  15. cloudy urine
  16. cold sweats
  17. confusion
  18. constipation
  19. cough or hoarseness
  20. coughing that sometimes produces a pink frothy sputum
  21. coughing up blood
  22. cracks in the skin
  23. darkened urine
  24. decrease in urine output or decrease in urine-concentrating ability
  25. decreased frequency or amount of urine
  26. diarrhea
  27. difficult, fast, or noisy breathing, sometimes with wheezing
  28. difficulty with breathing
  29. difficulty with swallowing
  30. dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up from a lying or sitting position
  31. dry mouth
  32. fast or irregular heartbeat
  33. fever
  34. flushed, dry skin
  35. fruit-like breath odor
  36. general body swelling
  37. general feeling of discomfort or illness
  38. general feeling of tiredness or weakness
  39. greatly decreased frequency of urination or amount of urine
  40. headache
  41. hives
  42. increased blood pressure
  43. increased hunger
  44. increased sweating
  45. increased thirst
  46. increased urination
  47. indigestion
  48. itching
  49. joint pain, stiffness, or swelling
  50. loss of appetite
  51. loss of heat from the body
  52. lower back or side pain
  53. muscle cramps or pain
  54. nausea or vomiting
  55. nosebleeds
  56. numbness, tingling, pain, or weakness in the hands or feet
  57. pain in the joints or muscles
  58. painful or difficult urination
  59. pains in the stomach, side, or abdomen, possibly radiating to the back
  60. pale skin
  61. pinpoint red spots on the skin
  62. puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  63. rash
  64. red, irritated eyes
  65. red skin lesions, often with a purple center
  66. red, swollen skin
  67. redness, soreness, or itching skin
  68. scaly skin
  69. seizures
  70. shortness of breath
  71. sore throat
  72. sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in the mouth
  73. sores, welting, or blisters
  74. sugar in the urine
  75. swelling of the face, fingers, legs, ankles, feet, or lower legs
  76. swollen or painful glands
  77. tenderness of salivary glands
  78. thickening of bronchial secretions
  79. tightness in the chest
  80. trembling
  81. troubled breathing
  82. unpleasant breath odor
  83. unusual bleeding or bruising
  84. unusual tiredness or weakness
  85. unusual weight loss
  86. vomiting of blood
  87. weakness and heaviness of the legs
  88. weight gain
  89. wheezing
  90. yellow eyes or skin

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

Incidence not known

  1. Cramping
  2. decreased interest in sexual intercourse
  3. difficulty having a bowel movement (stool)
  4. feeling of constant movement of self or surroundings
  5. hair loss or thinning of the hair
  6. inability to have or keep an erection
  7. increased sensitivity of the skin to sunlight
  8. loss in sexual ability, desire, drive, or performance
  9. muscle spasm
  10. pinpoint red or purple spots on the skin
  11. redness or other discoloration of the skin
  12. restlessness
  13. sensation of spinning
  14. severe sunburn
  15. weakness

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.