Dosing

The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (18 years and older)

To treat anxiety, 20-40 milligrams of echinacea have been taken by mouth daily for seven days.

To improve exercise performance, five 400 milligram doses of echinacea have been taken by mouth four times daily for 28 days. A dose of 8,000 milligrams of echinacea has been taken by mouth once daily for 28 days.

To stimulate the immune system, five 400 milligram doses of echinacea have been taken by mouth four times daily for 28 days. A total of eight doses of Echinilin® (5 milliliters each) have been taken by mouth in a single day at onset of two symptoms of common cold, followed by three doses of 5 milliliters daily for six days. A combination dose containing 675 milligrams of Echinacea purpurea and 600 milligrams of Echinacea angustifolia has been taken by mouth twice daily for 14 days. A dose of 780 milligrams of Echinacea purpurea whole herb extract and 680 milligrams of ultrarefined Echinacea purpurea whole herb and Echinacea angustifolia root has been taken by mouth in two capsule doses twice daily. A dose of 908 milligrams of Echinacea purpurea whole herb extract, 464 milligrams of Echinacea purpurea whole herb, and 36 milligrams of Echinacea angustifolia root has been taken by mouth in two capsule doses twice daily. A dose of 7.5 milliliters of alcohol extract of Echinacea purpurea has been taken by mouth twice daily for seven days.

To treat low white blood cell count caused by radiation, two Echinacea® tablets (275 milligrams each) have been taken by mouth twice daily for two weeks.

To prevent the common cold in adults and children, doses of 176-300 milligrams of Echinacea purpurea or 300 milligrams of Echinacea angustifolia have been taken by mouth three times daily for 1-8 weeks before a virus challenge, followed by continuation of treatment for five or seven days. A 1.5 milliliter tincture containing the equivalent of 300 milligrams of Echinaceaangustifolia root has been taken by mouth three times daily for seven days before experimental infection or starting on the day of experimental infection and continuing for five days. A dose of 4 milliliters of echinacea juice has been taken by mouth twice daily for eight weeks. Pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea (Echinacin® EC31) has been taken by mouth once daily for 28 days. A dose of 2,400 milligrams (0.9 milliliters) of Echinaforce® has been taken by mouth daily in three divided doses, then increased to 4,000 milligrams daily in five divided doses for a total of four months. A dose of 200 milligrams of Polinacea® has been taken by mouth daily for 15 days, then reduced to 100 milligrams daily for 15 days, then finally reduced to 100 milligrams every other day for 60 days.

To treat the common cold in adults, experts often suggest: 500-1,000 milligrams of echinacea three times daily for 5-7 days (with 900 milligrams daily shown to have more benefit than 450 milligrams daily); a dose of 6-9 milliliters of echinacea juice daily in divided doses for 5-7 days; a dose of 0.75-1.5 milliliters of tincture, gargled then swallowed, 2-5 times daily for 5-7 days (with daily dose equivalent to 900 milligrams of dried echinacea root); and for echinacea tea, typically 2 teaspoons (4 grams of powdered echinacea herb) simmered in boiling water for 10 minutes, taken daily for 5-7 days. Eight doses of 5 milliliters of Echinacea purpurea extract (Echinilin®), diluted with half a glass of water, have been taken by mouth on the first day of cold symptoms, with three doses taken on days 2-7. Echinilin® has also been taken by mouth in 4 milliliter doses for seven days. Echinaforce® (6.78 milligrams of Echinacea purpurea extract) and a 7X concentration (48.27 milligrams) has been taken by mouth. Twenty drops of Echinaguard® (Echinacea purpurea sap) has been taken by mouth in water every two hours for the first day, then three times daily for up to 10 days. Echinacea pallida root has been taken by mouth as 90 drops daily over 8-10 days. Five to six cups of Echinacea Plus® tea (equivalent to 1.275 milligrams of dried herb and root per tea bag) have been taken by mouth on the first day and reduced by one cup daily for the next five days. A dose of 900 milligrams of Pascotox® (Echinacea pallida root) has been taken by mouth daily for 8-10 days. A dose of 1 milliliter of Echinacea angustifolia or Echinacea purpurea root extract in 30 percent alcohol has been taken by mouth twice daily for 12 weeks. The pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea (Echinacin® EC31) has been taken by mouth for 28 days. A mixture of unrefined Echinacea purpurea herb (25%) and root (25%) plus Echinacea angustifolia root (50%) has been taken by mouth in 1 gram doses six times on the first day of symptoms, then three times daily on each additional day of illness, for up to 10 days. Echinacea tablets containing 675 milligrams of Echinacea purpurea and 600 milligrams of Echinacea angustifolia root extracts have been taken by mouth in two tablet doses four times daily for one day, followed by one tablet doses four times daily for four days.

To treat mild eye inflammation, 150 milligrams of Echinacea purpurea have been taken by mouth twice daily as an add-on therapy.

To promote wound healing, experts often suggest using a 15 percent pressed herb juice applied to the skin daily.

For cancer, 300 milligrams per meter squared of cyclophosphamide have been given through an intravenous (IV) tube every 28 days, 60 milligrams per meter squared of Echinacin® have been injected into the muscle, and 30 milligrams per meter squared of thymostimulin have been injected into the muscle on days 3-10 after cyclophosphamide, then twice weekly. A solution containing 2 milligrams of an echinacea polysaccharide has been given through IV once daily, starting three days before chemotherapy and continuing for 10 days. In general, injectable forms of echinacea are no longer approved for use in Germany and are not available commercially, as severe reactions have been reported.

Children (under 18 years old)

Increased risk of rash has been reported after the use of echinacea for cold symptom treatment in children aged 2-11 years. The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), European Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), and the UK Herbal Medicines Advisory Committee (HMAC) warn that children under 12 should avoid echinacea due to the risk of severe allergic reaction. However, Echinaforce® Tablets and Echinaforce® Echinacea Drops, which are taken by mouth, have been approved for children under 12.

To prevent the common cold, 100 milligrams of Monoselect® or Be Total Plus has been taken by mouth daily for 30 days, then reduced to 100 milligrams of Polinacea® every other day for the next 60 days.

To treat whooping cough in children 14 years and younger, 1-2 milliliters of squeezed aqueous extract (0.1 grams per 2 milliliters) have been injected into the muscle twice daily for 3-21 days. However, safety information on injecting echinacea into the muscle is limited and should be used with caution. Echinacea preparations given through IV feeding tubes are no longer approved for use in Germany and are not available commercially, as severe reactions have been reported.

This evidence-based monograph was prepared by The Natural Standard Research Collaboration

www.naturalstandard.com