Selected references

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  3. Davison G, Callister R, Williamson G, et al. The effect of acute pre-exercise dark chocolate consumption on plasma antioxidant status, oxidative stress and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise. Eur.J Nutr 2012;51(1):69-79.
  4. Fogleman CD. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure. Am Fam.Physician 4-1-2013;87(7):484.
  5. Grassi D, Desideri G, Necozione S, et al. Protective effects of flavanol-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function and wave reflection during acute hyperglycemia. Hypertension 2012;60(3):827-832.
  6. Mellor DD, Madden LA, Smith KA, et al. High-polyphenol chocolate reduces endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress during acute transient hyperglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Diabet.Med. 2013;30(4):478-483.
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  9. Neufingerl N, Zebregs YE, Schuring EA, et al. Effect of cocoa and theobromine consumption on serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2013;97(6):1201-1209.
  10. Ostertag LM, Kroon PA, Wood S, et al. Flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and white chocolate improve acute measures of platelet function in a gender-specific way--a randomized-controlled human intervention trial. Mol.Nutr Food Res 2013;57(2):191-202.
  11. Rein MJ, Renouf M, Cruz-Hernandez C, et al. Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy. Br.J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75(3):588-602.
  12. Ros E and Hu FB. Consumption of plant seeds and cardiovascular health: epidemiological and clinical trial evidence. Circulation 7-30-2013;128(5):553-565.
  13. Sorond FA, Hurwitz S, Salat DH, et al. Neurovascular coupling, cerebral white matter integrity, and response to cocoa in older people. Neurology 9-3-2013;81(10):904-909.
  14. Stote KS, Clevidence BA, Novotny JA, et al. Effect of cocoa and green tea on biomarkers of glucose regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and hemostasis in obese adults at risk for insulin resistance. Eur.J Clin Nutr 2012;66(10):1153-1159.
  15. van Dam RM, Naidoo N, and Landberg R. Dietary flavonoids and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases: review of recent findings. Curr Opin.Lipidol. 2013;24(1):25-33.

This evidence-based monograph was prepared by The Natural Standard Research Collaboration