Selected references

  1. Bebenek, M., Kemmler, W., von, Stengel S., Engelke, K., and Kalender, W. A. Effect of exercise and Cimicifuga racemosa (CR BNO 1055) on bone mineral density, 10-year coronary heart disease risk, and menopausal complaints: the randomized controlled Training and Cimicifuga racemosa Erlangen (TRACE) study. Menopause. 2010;17(4):791-800.
  2. Brasky, T. M., Lampe, J. W., Potter, J. D., Patterson, R. E., and White, E. Specialty supplements and breast cancer risk in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19(7):1696-1708.
  3. Geller, S. E., Shulman, L. P., van Breemen, R. B., Banuvar, S., Zhou, Y., Epstein, G., Hedayat, S., Nikolic, D., Krause, E. C., Piersen, C. E., Bolton, J. L., Pauli, G. F., and Farnsworth, N. R. Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Menopause. 2009;16(6):1156-1166.
  4. Kelley, K. W. and Carroll, D. G. Evaluating the evidence for over-the-counter alternatives for relief of hot flashes in menopausal women. J Am Pharm.Assoc.(2003.) 2010;50(5):e106-e115.
  5. Lundstrom, E., Hirschberg, A. L., and Soderqvist, G. Digitized assessment of mammographic breast density--effects of continuous combined hormone therapy, tibolone and black cohosh compared to placebo. Maturitas 2011;70(4):361-364.
  6. Maki, P. M., Rubin, L. H., Fornelli, D., Drogos, L., Banuvar, S., Shulman, L. P., and Geller, S. E. Effects of botanicals and combined hormone therapy on cognition in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2009;16(6):1167-1177.
  7. Molla, M. D., Hidalgo-Mora, J. J., and Soteras, M. G. Phytotherapy as alternative to hormone replacement therapy. Front Biosci (Schol.Ed) 2011;3:191-204.
  8. Naser, B., Schnitker, J., Minkin, M. J., de Arriba, S. G., Nolte, K. U., and Osmers, R. Suspected black cohosh hepatotoxicity: no evidence by meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials for isopropanolic black cohosh extract. Menopause. 2011;18(4):366-375.
  9. Palacio, C., Masri, G., and Mooradian, A. D. Black cohosh for the management of menopausal symptoms : a systematic review of clinical trials. Drugs Aging 2009;26(1):23-36.
  10. Rostock, M., Fischer, J., Mumm, A., Stammwitz, U., Saller, R., and Bartsch, H. H. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients with climacteric complaints - a prospective observational study. Gynecol.Endocrinol. 2011;27(10):844-848.
  11. Shams, T., Setia, M. S., Hemmings, R., McCusker, J., Sewitch, M., and Ciampi, A. Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: a meta-analysis. Altern.Ther Health Med 2010;16(1):36-44.
  12. Shou, C., Li, J., and Liu, Z. Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Chin J Integr Med 2011;17(12):883-888.
  13. Teschke, R., Schwarzenboeck, A., Schmidt-Taenzer, W., Wolff, A., and Hennermann, K. H. Herb induced liver injury presumably caused by black cohosh: a survey of initially purported cases and herbal quality specifications. Ann Hepatol. 2011;10(3):249-259.
  14. Thacker, H. L. Assessing risks and benefits of nonhormonal treatments for vasomotor symptoms in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. J Womens Health (Larchmt.) 2011;20(7):1007-1016.
  15. van Breemen, R. B., Liang, W., Banuvar, S., Shulman, L. P., Pang, Y., Tao, Y., Nikolic, D., Krock, K. M., Fabricant, D. S., Chen, S. N., Hedayat, S., Bolton, J. L., Pauli, G. F., Piersen, C. E., Krause, E. C., Geller, S. E., and Farnsworth, N. R. Pharmacokinetics of 23-epi-26-deoxyactein in women after oral administration of a standardized extract of black cohosh. Clin Pharmacol.Ther 2010;87(2):219-225.

This evidence-based monograph was prepared by The Natural Standard Research Collaboration