Once your child's doctor diagnoses Wilms' tumor, he or she works to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. The doctor may recommend a chest X-ray or chest CT scan and bone scan to determine whether the cancer has spread beyond the kidneys.
The doctor assigns a stage to the cancer, which helps determine the treatment options. In the United States, guidelines developed through the National Wilms Tumor Study of the Children's Oncology Group include these five stages:
In select cases, a 3-D printer is used to create an exact model of a patient's anatomy to help plan complex operations for Wilms' tumor.