Tests and diagnosis
MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body.
Ultrasound imaging uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of structures in your body.
X-rays are a form of radiation that can make images of your bones and internal organs.
Treatments and drugs
Got a painful joint? With arthroscopy, you can find out why — and get relief.
Find out what to expect before, during and after knee replacement surgery.
Jun. 16, 2012
- LeBlond RF, et al. DeGowin's Diagnostic Examination. 9th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2009. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=3656578. Accessed March 31, 2012.
- Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05472-0..X0001-1--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05472-0&uniqId=230100505-57. Accessed March 31, 2012.
- Mathison DJ, et al. Approach to knee effusions. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2009;25:773.
- Knee problems. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Knee_Problems/knee_problems_ff.asp. Accessed March 31, 2012.
- Meininger AK, et al. Evaluation of the injured runner. Clinics in Sports Medicine. 2012;31:203.
- Bettencourt RB, et al. Arthrocentesis and therapeutic joint injection: An overview for the primary care physician. Primary Care. 2010;37:691.
- Chang-Miller A (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale/Phoenix, Ariz. June 14, 2012.