Preventing viral hemorrhagic fevers, especially in developing nations, presents enormous challenges. Many of the social, economic and ecological factors that contribute to the sudden appearance and spread of infectious diseases — war, displacement, destruction of habitat, lack of sanitation and proper medical care — are problems that have no easy solutions.
If you live in or travel to areas where viral hemorrhagic fevers are common, take precautions to protect yourself from infection.
The yellow fever vaccine is generally considered safe and effective, although in rare cases, serious side effects can occur. Check with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about the status of the countries you're visiting — some require certificates of vaccination for entry. The yellow fever vaccine isn't recommended for children under 9 months of age or for pregnant women, especially during the first trimester. Vaccines for several less common types of viral hemorrhagic fevers are currently in development.
Avoid mosquitoes and ticks
Do your best to avoid mosquitoes and ticks, especially when traveling in areas where there are outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fevers. Wear light-colored long pants and long-sleeved shirts or, better yet, permethrin-coated clothing. Don't apply permethrin directly to the skin. Avoid unnecessary activities at dusk and dawn when mosquitoes are most active and apply mosquito repellent with a 20 to 25 percent concentration of DEET to your skin and clothing. If you're staying in tented camps or local hotels, use bed nets and mosquito coils.
Guard against rodents
If you live in an area where there are outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fevers, take these steps to prevent rodent infestations in your home:
Mar. 05, 2013
- Keep pet food covered and stored in rodent-proof containers.
- Store trash in rodent-proof containers, and clean the containers often.
- Dispose of garbage on a regular basis.
- Make sure doors and windows have tight-fitting screens.
- Place woodpiles and stacks of bricks and other materials at least 100 feet from your house.
- Mow your grass closely and keep brush trimmed to within 100 feet from your house.
- Goldman L, et al. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/191371208-2/0/1492/0.html#. Accessed Nov. 27, 2012.
- Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Fact sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/vhf.htm. Accessed Nov. 27, 2012.
- Rollin PE. Viral hemorrhagic fevers. 2012 Yellow Book. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2012/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/viral-hemorrhagic-fevers.htm. Accessed Nov. 27, 2012.
- Ippolito G, et al. Viral hemorrhagic fevers: Advancing the level of treatment. BMC Medicine. 2012;10:1741.
- Mandell GL, et al. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-443-06839-3..X0001-X--TOP&isbn=978-0-443-06839-3&uniqId=230100505-57. Accessed Nov. 27, 2012.
- Meltzer E. Arboviruses and viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF). Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 2012;26:479.
- Wilder-Smith A. Dengue infections in travellers. Paediatrics and International Child Health. 2012;32:28.
- MacNeil A, et al. Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers: Neglected tropical diseases? Public Library of Science. 2012;6:e1546.
- Clean up rodent food sources and nesting sites. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/rodents/prevent_infestations/clean_up.html. Accessed Dec. 3, 2012.
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