Risk factors for vesicoureteral reflux include:
June 20, 2014
- Race. White children appear to have a higher risk of vesicoureteral reflux.
- Sex. Generally, girls have about double the risk of having this condition as boys do. The exception is for vesicoureteral reflux that's present at birth, which is more common in boys.
- Age. Infants and children up to age 1 are more likely to have vesicoureteral reflux than older children are.
Family history. Primary vesicoureteral reflux tends to run in families. Children whose parents had the condition are at higher risk of developing it.
Siblings of children who have the condition also are at higher risk, so your doctor may recommend screening for the siblings of a child with primary vesicoureteral reflux.
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- Vesicoureteral reflux. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/congenital_renal_and_genitourinary_anomalies/vesicoureteral_reflux.html. Accessed April 1, 2014.
- Urinary tract infection in adults. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. http://www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/utiadult/. Accessed April 1, 2014.
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- Fever and your child. American Academy of Pediatrics. http://patiented.aap.org/content2.aspx?aid=5107. Accessed April 6, 2014.
- McLorie G, et al. Management of vesicoureteral reflux. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 3, 2014.
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- Schmitt BD. Pediatric Telephone Protocols. 14th ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2013:120-124.
- McLorie G, et al. Presentation, diagnosis, and clinical course of vesicoureteral reflux. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 30, 2014.