Many babies born with a small ventricular septal defect (VSD) won't need surgery to close the hole. After birth, your doctor may want to observe your baby and treat symptoms while waiting to see if the defect closes on its own.
Babies who need surgical repair often have the procedure in their first year. Children and adults who have a medium or large ventricular septal defect or one that's causing significant symptoms may need surgery to close the defect.
Some smaller ventricular septal defects are closed surgically to prevent complications related to their locations, such as damage to heart valves. Many people with small VSDs have productive lives with few related problems.
Babies who have large VSDs or who tire easily during feeding may need extra nutrition to help them grow. Some babies may require tube feeding.
Medications for ventricular septal defect may include those to:
- Decrease the amount of fluid in circulation and in the lungs. Doing so reduces the volume of blood that must be pumped. These medications, called diuretics, include furosemide (Lasix).
- Keep the heartbeat regular. Examples include beta blockers, such as metoprolol (Lopressor), propranolol (Inderal LA) and others, and digoxin (Lanoxin, Lanoxin Pediatric).
Surgical treatment for ventricular septal defects involves plugging or patching the abnormal opening between the ventricles. If you or your child is having surgery to repair a ventricular defect, consider having surgery performed by surgeons and cardiologists with training and expertise in conducting these procedures. Procedures may include:
- Surgical repair. This procedure of choice in most cases usually involves open-heart surgery under general anesthesia. The surgery requires a heart-lung machine and an incision in the chest. The doctor uses a patch or stitches to close the hole.
- Catheter procedure. Closing a ventricular septal defect during catheterization doesn't require opening the chest. Rather, the doctor inserts a thin tube (catheter) into a blood vessel in the groin and guides it to the heart. The doctor then uses a specially sized mesh device to close the hole.
- Hybrid procedure. A hybrid procedure uses surgical and catheter-based techniques. Access to the heart is usually through a small incision, and the procedure may be performed without stopping the heart and using the heart-lung machine. A device closes the ventricular septal defect via a catheter placed through the incision.
After repair, your doctor will schedule regular medical follow-up to ensure that the ventricular septal defect remains closed and to look for signs of complications. Depending on the size of the defect and the presence of other problems, your doctor will tell you how frequently you or your child will need to be seen.