Before you faint due to vasovagal syncope, you may experience some of the following:
- Pale skin
- Tunnel vision — your field of vision narrows so that you see only what's in front of you
- Feeling warm
- A cold, clammy sweat
- Blurred vision
During a vasovagal syncope episode, bystanders may notice:
- Jerky, abnormal movements
- A slow, weak pulse
- Dilated pupils
Recovery after a vasovagal episode generally begins in less than a minute. However, if you stand up too soon after fainting — within about 15 to 30 minutes — you're at risk of fainting again.
Vasovagal syncope occurs when the part of your nervous system that regulates heart rate and blood pressure malfunctions in response to a trigger, such as the sight of blood.
Your heart rate slows, and the blood vessels in your legs widen (dilate.) This allows blood to pool in your legs, which lowers your blood pressure. Combined, the drop in blood pressure and slowed heart rate quickly reduce blood flow to your brain, and you faint.
Sometimes there is no classical vasovagal syncope trigger, but common triggers include:
- Standing for long periods of time
- Heat exposure
- Seeing blood
- Having blood drawn
- Fear of bodily injury
- Straining, such as to have a bowel movement