Varicocele treatment may not be necessary. However, if your varicocele causes pain, testicular atrophy or infertility or if you are considering assisted reproductive techniques, you may want to undergo varicocele repair.
The purpose of surgery is to seal off the affected vein to redirect the blood flow into normal veins. In cases of male infertility, treatment of a varicocele may improve or cure the infertility or improve the quality of sperm if techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) are to be used.
Varicoceles typically develop in adolescence and likely result in worsened sperm production. Despite the decreased sperm quality overall, many men with varicoceles continue to have sufficient sperm quality to achieve a pregnancy later in life.
Clear indications to repair a varicocele in adolescence include progressive testicular atrophy, pain or abnormal semen analysis results. Although treatment of a varicocele generally improves sperm characteristics, it is not clear if an untreated varicocele leads to progressive worsening of sperm quality over time.
Varicocele repair presents relatively few risks, which may include:
- Buildup of fluid around the testicles (hydrocele)
- Recurrence of varicoceles
- Testicular atrophy
- Damage to an artery
Repair methods include:
Dec. 07, 2014
Open surgery. This treatment usually is done on an outpatient basis, during a general or local anesthetic. Commonly, your surgeon will approach the vein through your groin (inguinal or subinguinal), but it's also possible to make an incision in your abdomen or below your groin.
Advances in varicocele repair have led to a reduction of post-surgical complications. One advance is the use of the surgical microscope, which enables the surgeon to see the treatment area better during surgery. Another is the use of Doppler ultrasound, which helps guide the procedure.
You may be able to return to normal, nonstrenuous activities after two days. As long as you're not uncomfortable, you may return to more strenuous activity, such as exercising, after two weeks.
Pain from this surgery generally is mild but may continue for several days or weeks. Your doctor may prescribe pain medication for a limited period after surgery. After that, your doctor may advise you to take over-the-counter (OTC) painkillers, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) to relieve discomfort.
Your doctor may advise you not to have sex for a period of time. Most often, it will take several months after surgery before improvements in sperm quality can be seen with a semen analysis. This is because it takes approximately three months for new sperm to develop.
Open surgery using a microscope and subinguinal approach has the highest success rates when compared with other surgical methods.
- Laparoscopic surgery. Your surgeon makes a small incision in your abdomen and passes a tiny instrument through the incision to see and to repair the varicocele. This procedure requires general anesthesia.
Percutaneous embolization. This procedure is done during local anesthesia on an outpatient basis. A radiologist inserts a tube into a vein in your groin or neck through which instruments can be passed. Viewing your enlarged veins on a monitor, the doctor releases coils or a solution that causes scarring to create a blockage in the testicular veins, which interrupts the blood flow and repairs the varicocele.
This procedure isn't as widely used as surgery.
- Varicoceles. American Urological Association Foundation. http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=116. Accessed Oct. 22, 2014.
- Painless scrotal mass. The Merck Manual Professional Edition. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary_disorders/symptoms_of_genitourinary_disorders/painless_scrotal_mass.html. Accessed Oct. 22, 2014.
- Eyre RC. Evaluation of nonacute scrotal pathology in adult men. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 22, 2014.
- Masson P, et al. The varicocele. Urologic Clinics of North America. 2014;41:129.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2011: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2011. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05610-6..C2009-0-38600-6--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05610-6&about=true&uniqId=468779756-21. Accessed Oct. 22, 2014.
- Trost LW (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 23, 2014.
- Nork JJ, et al. Youth varicocele and varicocele treatment: A meta-analysis of semen outcomes. Fertility and Sterility: 2104;102:381.