Painful urination: Symptom — Overview covers definition, possible causes of burning pain during urination (dysuria).
Tests and diagnosis
If your Pap test results are abnormal, the next step may be colposcopy — a procedure to determine whether the abnormal cells are cancerous.
A CT scan is an imaging test that uses X-rays to produce detailed images of the inside of your body.
During cystoscopy, your doctor uses a special tool to look inside your bladder for abnormalities.
MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body.
Find out what to expect during a needle biopsy.
Getting a Pap smear regularly is your best defense against cervical cancer. Understand how a Pap smear is done and what abnormal test results mean.
A pelvic exam may be done as a part of a routine checkup to evaluate your gynecologic health, or to help diagnose a medical condition.
A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that can detect changes within certain tissues or organs early, often before disease progresses.
X-rays are a form of radiation that can make images of your bones and internal organs.
Treatments and drugs
Find out what to expect as you prepare for chemotherapy treatment.
Wonder how cancer treatment could affect your fertility? Understand what you can do to preserve your fertility before starting treatment.
Radiation therapy is a common means of treating many types of cancer. Find out what to expect during your radiation therapy treatment.
Apr. 27, 2013
- Abeloff MD, et al. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2008. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-4/0/1709/0.html. Accessed Jan. 28, 2013.
- Vaginal cancer treatment (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/vaginal/patient. Accessed Jan. 28, 2013.
- Lentz GM, et al. Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/linkTo?type=bookPage&isbn=978-0-323-06986-1&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-06986-1..C2009-0-48752-X--TOP. Accessed Jan. 28, 2013.
- Hoffman BL, et al. Williams Gynecology. 2nd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=768. Accessed Jan. 28, 2013.
- Total pelvic exenteration. American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/physicalsideeffects/sexualsideeffectsinwomen/sexualityforthewoman/sexuality-for-women-with-cancer-tot-pelvic-exenterat. Accessed Jan. 28, 2013.
- Taking time: Support for people with cancer. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/takingtime. Accessed Jan. 29, 2013.