Half of all women experience a urinary tract infection during their lifetimes. The condition can be a serious health problem when it involves the kidneys.
At some point, many women experience painful intercourse — for many different reasons. Here's how to discuss the problem and get treatment.
Vaginal health is too important to ignore. Get the facts about how to keep your vagina healthy.
Vaginal dryness is a common and uncomfortable condition — but there are effective ways to treat it.
Tests and diagnosis
Getting a Pap smear regularly is your best defense against cervical cancer. Understand how a Pap smear is done and what abnormal test results mean.
A pelvic exam may be done as a part of a routine checkup to evaluate your gynecologic health or to help diagnose a medical condition.
Urinalysis can be used to assess your overall health, detect a wide range of disorders, or monitor a medical condition or treatment.
Treatments and drugs
NuvaRing (vaginal ring) — Overview covers definition, risks, instructions for using this type of contraception.
Apr. 23, 2013
- AskMayoExpert. What causes urogenital atrophy? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2012.
- Bachmann G, et al. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of vaginal atrophy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 10, 2013.
- Bachmann G, et al. Treatment of vaginal atrophy. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 10, 2013.
- AskMayoExpert. What are the symptoms of urogenital atrophy? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2012.
- Pickar JH. Emerging therapies for postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. Maturitas. In press. Accessed March 21, 2013.
- AskMayoExpert. What are the treatment options for managing vaginal symptoms of urogenital atrophy in women with a history of breast cancer? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2012.
- Papadakis MA, et al. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2013. 52nd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2013. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1. Accessed March 19, 2013.
- The 2012 hormone therapy position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2012;19:257.
- Menopause and menopause treatments. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov. Accessed March 8, 2013.
- Lentz GM, et al. Comprehensive Gynecology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/linkTo?type=bookPage&isbn=978-0-323-06986-1&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-06986-1..C2009-0-48752-X--TOP. Accessed March 10, 2013.
- AskMayoExpert. Are any tests available that can confirm or suggest vulvovaginal atrophy? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2012.
- Leach MJ, et al. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007244.pub2/abstract. Accessed March 11, 2013.
- Casper RF, et al. Menopausal hot flashes. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 11, 2013.
- Summary of Roundtable Meeting on Dietary Supplement-Drug Interactions. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. http://nccam.nih.gov/news/events/druginteraction?nav=gsa. March 21, 2013.
- Tan O, et al. Management of vulvovaginal atrophy-related sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women: An up-to-date review. Menopause. 2012;19:109.
- Simon JA, et al. One-year long-term safety extension study of ospemifene for the treatment of vulvar and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women with a uterus. Menopause. 2013;20:1.
You Are ... The Campaign for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Make a difference today.