In addition to taking a thorough medical history and performing a physical exam, your doctor will recommend certain diagnostic tests, including:
Sep. 30, 2011
- Urinalysis. A thorough urine analysis is the most important first step. Urine tests are used to look for the presence of red blood cells, high levels of protein — which may indicate a kidney problem — and excreted minerals that can cause kidney stones. A sample of your urine is also likely to be checked for bacteria that cause infection.
- Blood tests. These may be used to measure levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) — waste products that build up in your bloodstream when your kidneys are damaged and not filtering properly. Blood tests may also look for elevated levels of liver enzymes, and for conditions such as diabetes.
- Gerber GS, et al. Evaluation of the urologic patient: History, physical examination, and urinalysis. In: Wein AJ, et al. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1445/0.html. Accessed June 21, 2011.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Differential Diagnosis: A practical guide to the differential diagnosis of symptoms, signs and clinical disorders. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2011:82.
- Post TW, et al. Urinalysis in the diagnosis of renal disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed June 22, 2011.
- McPherson RA, et al. Components of basic (routine) urinalysis. In: McPherson RA, et al. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. Philadelphia. Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1393/0.html. Accessed June 22, 2011.
- Foot CL, et al. Uroscopic rainbow: Modern matula medicine. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2006;82:126.
- Hooton TM. Acute cystitis in women. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index.html. Accessed June 28, 2011.
- Castle EP (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 5, 2011.
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