In addition to taking a thorough medical history and performing a physical exam, your doctor may recommend certain diagnostic tests, including:
Mar. 14, 2015
- Urinalysis. Your doctor uses urine tests to look for red blood cells, high levels of protein, and excreted minerals in the urine that may indicate kidney or urinary tract problems. A sample of your urine is also likely to be checked for bacteria that cause infection.
- Blood tests. Certain blood tests measure the level of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen — waste products that build up in your bloodstream when your kidneys are damaged and not filtering properly. Your doctor may also check a sample of your blood for elevated levels of liver enzymes, and for conditions such as diabetes.
- Wein AJ, et al. Evaluation of the urologic patient. In: Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 9, 2015.
- Buttaravoli P, et al. Colorful urine. In: Minor Emergencies. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 9, 2015.
- Wald R. Urinalysis in the diagnosis of kidney disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 9, 2015.
- McPherson RA, et al. Basic examination of urine. In: Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia. Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2011. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 9, 2015.
- Viswanathan S. Urine bag as a modern day matula. ISRN Nephrology. 2013:215690.
- Hooton TM, et al. Acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 12, 2015.
- Feldman AS, et al. Etiology and evaluation of hematuria in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 12, 2015.
- Ferri FF. Brown urine. In: Ferri's Differential Diagnosis: A Practical Guide to the Differential Diagnosis of Symptoms, Signs and Clinical Disorders. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2011:82.
- Castle EP (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Phoenix/Scottsdale, Ariz. Feb. 20, 2015.
- Kidney stones in adults. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/KUDiseases/pubs/stonesadults/index.aspx. Accessed Feb. 19, 2015.
- Rohren CH (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Feb. 20, 2015.
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