Risk factorsBy Mayo Clinic Staff
Typhoid fever remains a serious worldwide threat — especially in the developing world — affecting an estimated 26 million or more people each year. The disease is endemic in India, Southeast Asia, Africa, South America and many other areas.
Worldwide, children are at greatest risk of getting the disease, although they generally have milder symptoms than adults do.
If you live in a country where typhoid fever is rare, you're at increased risk if you:
July 11, 2015
- Work in or travel to areas where typhoid fever is endemic
- Work as a clinical microbiologist handling Salmonella typhi bacteria
- Have close contact with someone who is infected or has recently been infected with typhoid fever
- Drink water contaminated by sewage that contains S. typhi
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- Longo DL, et al., eds. Salmonellosis In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2015. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed June 10, 2015.
- Typhoid fever. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/typhoid_fever. Accessed June 10, 2015.
- Hohmann EL. Epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of typhoid fever. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 10, 2015.
- Hohmann EL. Treatment and prevention of typhoid fever. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 10, 2015.
- Anwar E, et al. Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001261.pub3/abstract. Accessed June 10, 2015.