Some known risk factors for type 1 diabetes include:
- Family history. Anyone with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes has a slightly increased risk of developing the condition.
- Genetics. The presence of certain genes indicates an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
- Geography. The incidence of type 1 diabetes tends to increase as you travel away from the equator. People living in Finland and Sardinia have the highest incidence of type 1 diabetes — about two to three times higher than rates in the United States and 400 times the incidence among people living in Venezuela.
- Age. Although type 1 diabetes can appear at any age, it appears at two noticeable peaks. The first peak occurs in children between 4 and 7 years old, and the second is in children between 10 and 14 years old.
Many other possible risk factors for type 1 diabetes have been investigated, though none have been proved. Some other possible risk factors include:
Aug. 02, 2014
- Exposure to certain viruses, such as the Epstein-Barr virus, Coxsackie virus, mumps virus and cytomegalovirus
- Early exposure to cow's milk
- Low vitamin D levels
- Drinking water that contains nitrates
- Early (before 4 months) or late (after 7 months) introduction of cereal and gluten into a baby's diet
- Having a mother who had preeclampsia during pregnancy
- Being born with jaundice
- Standards of medical care in diabetes — 2014. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:s14.
- Papadakis MA, ed., et al. Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2014. 53rd ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2014. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=1. Accessed April 27, 2014.
- Atkinson MA, et al. Type 1 diabetes. The Lancet. 2014;383:69.
- Levitsky LL, et al. Epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 27, 2014.
- Diabetes mellitus (DM). The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine_and_metabolic_disorders/diabetes_mellitus_and_disorders_of_carbohydrate_metabolism/diabetes_mellitus_dm.html. Accessed April 29, 2014.
- Peyser T, et al. The artificial pancreas: Current status and future prospects in the management of diabetes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2014;1311:102.
- Bergenstal RM, et al. Threshold-based insulin-pump interruption for reduction of hypoglycemia. New England Journal of Medicine. 2013;369:224.
- Levitsky LL, et al. Special situations in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 27, 2014.
- Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose). American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/hyperglycemia.html. Accessed April 29, 2014.
- DKA (ketoacidosis) and ketones. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/ketoacidosis-dka.html. Accessed April 29, 2014.